Abate, M. A., P. J. Meyer-Stout, et al. (2000). "Development and Evaluation of Computerized Problem-based Learning Cases Emphasizing Basic Sciences Concepts." American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 64(1): 74-82.
Describes development and evaluation of eight computerized problem-based learning (PBL) cases in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics concepts. Case versions either incorporated concept maps emphasizing key ideas or did not. Student performance on quizzes did not differ between the different case versions and was similar to that of students who attended facilitator-led sessions. Students evaluated the PBL sessions positively. (DB)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142)

Abd-El-khalick, F. S. and S. BouJaoude (1997). An exploratory study of the disciplinary knowledge of science teachers. AETS.

Abrams, R. Meaningful learning: A collaborative literature
review of concept mapping, Meaningful Learning Research Group,
California Consortium for Teacher Development, University of California,
Santa Cruz, CA. 2000.

Ackerman, F. and C. Eden (2001). "Contrasting single user and networked group decision support systems for strategy making." Group Decision and Negotiation 10: 47-66.

Adamczyk, P. and M. Willson (1996). "Using Concept Maps with Trainee Physics Teachers." Physics Education 31(6): 374-381.
Abstract:
Describes how the technique of concept mapping can be useful for identifying gaps in preservice teachers' knowledge. Validity of the technique was tested using blind interviews with a representative sample of eight trainees. Has potential as a valuable self-diagnostic tool for teachers teaching outside their area of specialization. (DDR)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Adil Hameed, 1, Derek Sleeman, 1 and Alun Preece, 1 (2002). "Detecting mismatches among experts' ontologies acquired through knowledge elicitation." Knowledge-Based Systems 15(5-6): 265-273.
Abstract (from Science Direct, is copyrighted?)
We have constructed a set of ontologies modelled on conceptual structures elicited from several domain experts. Protocols were collected from various experts, who advise on the selection/specification and purchase of personal computers. These protocols were analysed from the perspective of both the processes and the domain knowledge to reflect each expert's inherent conceptualisation of the domain. We are particularly interested in analysing discrepancies within and among such experts' ontologies, and have identified a range of ontology mismatches. A systematic approach to the analysis has been developed; subsequently, we shall develop software tools to support this process.

Adler, S. A. (1996). "On Case Method and Classroom Management." Action in Teacher Education 18(3): 33-43.
Abstract:
This article describes one teacher's use of case studies with a class of secondary student teachers, examining her efforts to assess and better understand the effects of case method in teacher education. The challenges and possibilities of reflection on practice are discussed through the examination of case method. (Author/SM)


Notes:
Theme issue title: "Studying Our Own Practice in Teacher Education."


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Aidman, E. and G. Egan (1998). "Academic assessment through computerized concept mapping: validating a method of implicit map reconstruction." International Journal of Instructional Media 25(3): 277-294.
A study of 100 psychology undergraduates and two lecturers found that implicit concept maps can be accurately reconstructed and compared with measures obtained from domain experts and that implicit learner maps can be used to identify individual differences in student knowledge. Discusses future research and potential applications in quantitative assessment of conceptual knowledge. Contains 48 references. (PEN)

Al-Kunifred, A. and J. Wandersee (1990). "One hundred references related to concept mapping." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 1069-1075.

Allen, B. S. and A. Others (1993). Computer-Based Mapping for Curriculum Development. Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Sponsored by the Research and Theory Division, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Abstract:
This article describes the results of a three-month experiment in the use of computer-based semantic networks for curriculum development. A team of doctoral and master's degree students developed a 1200-item computer database representing a tentative "domain of competency" for a proposed MA degree in Workforce Education and Lifelong Learning (WELL). The team gathered descriptions of knowledge that might be relevant to the proposed degree from state and national reports, existing course syllabi, textbooks, and interviews with subject matter experts. Using SemNet, a Macintosh-based program for constructing and analyzing semantic networks, they explored methods for organizing these decisions as a "map" of related skills and ideas that would in turn serve as a framework for a WELL curriculum. The team explored various methods for using domain maps to define course content, to recommend learning activities, and to provide academic counseling to prospective
WELL students. Among the innovative methods for conducting this experiment in curriculum development was the use of computer software for synchronous conferencing, which allowed team members to collaborate in evaluating and integrating domain maps. (Contains 32 references.) (Author)


Notes:
In: Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Sponsored by the Research and Theory Division (15th, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 13-17, 1993); see IR 016 300.

Alpert, S. R. and K. Gruenberg (2000). "Concept Mapping with Multimedia on the Web." Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 9(4): 313-331.
Abstract:
Discusses concept maps and describes an extension to computer-based concept mapping tools that provides representational capabilities that allows students to express their knowledge more fully by incorporating dynamic media-sound, video, and animated images. Explains multimedia knowledge maps, accessibility via Web browsers, and possible future plans. (Author/LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Amer, A. A. (1994). "The Effect of Knowledge-Map and Underlining Training on the Reading Comprehension of Scientific Texts." English for Specific Purposes 13(1): 35-45.
Abstract:
To help students overcome difficulties in understanding scientific texts in English, the effect of using two reading study strategies (knowledge-map and underlining) on reading comprehension was studied. Both strategies improved performance on open-ended questioning and summarization. (Contains 32 references.) (Author/LB)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Anderson, D., K. B. Lucas, et al. (2000). "Development of Knowledge about Electricity and Magnetism during a Visit to a Science Museum and Related Post- Visit Activities." Science Education 84(4-5): 658-679.
Abstract:
Reports on part of a larger study of how 11- and 12-year-old students construct knowledge of electricity and magnetism by drawing on aspects of their experiences during the course of a school visit to an interactive science museum and subsequent classroom activities linked to the science museum exhibits. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Anderson, O. R. and O. Demetrius (1993). "A flow-map method of representing cognitive structure based on respondents' narrative using science content." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 30(8): 953-969.
Method is presented for displaying the sequential and multirelational ideation of scientific narrative elicited from respondents. The flow map provides a figural representation of the flow of information, the points in the flow where multirelational and recurrent linkages are made, and the time required to retrieve and express the information at major intervals in the sequence and in total. (PR)

Anderson, O. R., D. Randle, et al. (2001). "The Role of Ideational Networks in Laboratory Inquiry Learning and Knowledge of Evolution among Seventh Grade Students." Science Education 85(4): 410-425.
Abstract:
Assesses ideational networks based on a written narrative of seventh grade students who had begun a unit on evolution. Indicates that students who scored high on the content analyses of their written narrative and whose narrative contained extensive ideational network linkages also tended to use a logical, sequential rule of ordering their thoughts. (Contains 43 references.) (Author/ASK)

Anderson-Inman, L. and L. Ditson (1999). "Computer-based concept mapping: A tool for negotiating meaning." Learning and Leading with Technology 26(8).
Anderson-Inman, L., & Ditson, L. (1999). Computer-based concept mapping: A tool for negotiating meaning. Learning and Leading with Technology, 26(8).

Abstract: In this feature article, the authors describe strategies for using computers to enhance teaching and learning through the process of electronic concept mapping. Each strategy provides teachers with step-by-step guidelines for integrating computer-based concept mapping into the curriculum and documents how research on the strategy is yielding promising results.

Anderson-Inman, L. and M. Horney (1996-1997). "Computer-Based Concept Mapping: Enhancing Literacy with Tools for Visual Thinking (Technology Tidbits)." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 40(4): 302-306.
Abstract:
Shares details about two prewriting strategies (brainstorming and synthesizing information), and discusses some practical issues related to the use of computer-based concept mapping in the classroom. (SR)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Anderson-Inman, L. and L. Ditson (1998). "COMPUTER-BASED CONCEPT MAPPING: PROMOTING MEANINGFUL LEARNING IN SCIENCE FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILI TIES." Information Technology and Disabilities 5(1/2).

Antonacci, P. A. (1991). "Students Search for Meaning in the Text through Semantic Mapping." Social Education 55(3): 174-175.
Abstract:
Explains semantic mapping as a visual representation of knowledge that is useful for understanding underlying textbook concepts. Outlines steps for constructing a conceptual map with ninth grade students to be used as an aid in reading about peoples of the Middle East. Emphasizes student participation for effective semantic mapping. Provides examples of pre- and postreading semantic maps. (NL)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Guides-Teaching (052)

Ares, J. and J. Pazos (1998). "Conceptual modelling: an essential pillar for quality software development." Knowledge-Based Sysytems 11(2): 87-104.
Abstract
After many years of stressing the importance of the product and the process in software development, emphasis has now switched to the role played by the person. This paper, however, underlines the importance of understanding and modelling the problem, as this is a necessary, and often sufficient, condition for developing good quality software. Firstly, a formal definition is given of what the problem is and how it can be classified. In view of the confusion in the field of software development, where the word model is used very vaguely, an explanation is given of what modelling means, and a generally applicable form of modelling is briefly discussed. Finally, conceptualisation is defined, first declaratively and then procedurally, and a method of building conceptual models is presented which particularly stresses the information map as a visual overview of the entire process.

Author Keywords: Models; Conceptual model; Problem solving

Arguea, N. (1998). Concept maps as a tool for distance learning in applied statistics courses. IX Congreso Internacional sobre Tecnologia y Educion a Distancia, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Aroyo, L., S. Stoyanov, et al. (1999). "An Agent-Oriented Approach for Ideational Support in Learning-Integration and Impact." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 10(3-4): 389-400.
Abstract:
Discusses agent technology within educational settings and describes two information systems, SMILE (Solution, Mapping, Intelligent, Learning, Environment) and AIMS (Agent based Information Management System) that use concept mapping to address issues including adaptive learner support, problem solving, information navigation, information structuring, presentation, and information retrieval. (Author/LRW)


Notes:
Special Issue: Intelligent Agents for Educational Computer-Aided Systems.


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Aston, J. A., Ed. and A. Others (1990). Making Thinking Visible: Collaborative Planning--Concepts, Processes, and Assignments: A Casebook.
Abstract:
This casebook is part of a set of materials written by the members of the Making Thinking Visible Project. It offers high school, college, and community college teachers' multiple perspectives on the teaching and learning of collaborative planning, and on classroom inquiry and practice. The casebook explains collaborative planning (a writing strategy that helps students develop a piece of writing by discussing key rhetorical considerations with a partner) and suggests ways that teachers may want to use this technique as part of the way they teach writing. It offers 14 articles in 3 sections. The first section, "Clarifying Concepts," includes "Introduction to Collaborative Planning and the Making Thinking Visible Project" (Linda Flower and others); "Reflecting Upon Our Project" (Nancy Nelson Spivey); "Writers Planning: Snapshots from Research That Helped To Frame Collaborative Planning" (Linda Flower); and "Engaged, Involved Supporters: Keys
to Effective Collaboration" (Rebecca E. Burnett). The second section, "Tracing Processes," includes "An Investigation into the Process of Critical Thinking and Collaborative Planning" (Leonard R. Donaldson); "The Right Metaphor" (Michael A. Benedict); "Planners' Options: A Collaborative Planning Tool Helping Inexperienced Writers/Planners Make Thinking Visible" (Thomas Hajduk); "Transforming Topic Knowledge: Six Portraits of Collaborative Planning" (David L. Wallace); "Transferring Talk to Text" (Jane Zachary Gargaro); "Student Teachers and Collaborative Planning: Transfer and Adaptation from Representation to Practice" (Linda Norris); and "Collaborative Planning and the Classroom Context: Tracking, Banking, and Transformation" (Jean A. Aston). The final section, "Adapting Assignments," contains "A Beginner's Map: From Collaboration to Collaborative Planning" (Leslie Byrd Evans); "Actual Classroom Experiences Using Collaborative Planning"
(Andrea S. Martine); and "A Reflective Look at Teaching Planning in High School" (Karen Gist). Notes on the editors and contributors are attached. (PRA)


Notes:
For an introduction to the project, see CS 212 964.


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); General (020)

Ault, C. R. (1985). "Concept mapping as a study strategy in earth science." Journal of Science College Teaching 15(1): 38-44.
Concept mapping leads students away from rote learning and toward true understanding of concepts and their relationships. Several sample and student maps on earth science topics are presented and discussed. Applications for science instructors, students, researchers, and teacher educators are also considered. (DH)

Austin, L. B. and B. M. Shore (1995). "Using Concept Mapping for Assessment in Physics." Physics Education 30(1): 41-45.
Abstract:
Describes a study in which concept maps drawn by high school students (n=12) were evaluated using quantitative measures. Results indicate that the concept maps are useful in assessing the understanding of relationships between the concepts required for multiple step problem solving in physics. Contains 12 references. (DDR)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Ausubel, D. P., J. D. Novak, et al. (1978). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Ausubel, D. P., J. D. Novak, et al. (1986 reprinting). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York, Werbel and Peck.

Ausubel, D. P. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York, Grune and Stratton.

Avery, P., J. Baker, et al. (1997). ""Mapping" learning at the secondary level." The Clearing House 70: 279-285.
Abstract:
Provides an overview of the nature and purpose of semantic mapping, as well as the instructional research base. Describes how semantic mapping was used in one secondary social studies classroom. Suggests ideas and resources for interested teachers. (RS)
Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Ayersman, D. (1995). "Effects of knowledge representation format and hypermedia instruction on metacognitive accuracy." Computers in Human Behavior 11(3-4): 533-555.
Discussion of hypermedia, memory, and metacognition focuses on a study of graduate students that examined how hypermedia instruction can influence structures of knowledge, format selection for graphical descriptions of hypermedia-related information, hypermedia knowledge, concept-map complexity, and metacognitive accuracy. Future research is discussed. (LRW)

Bahr, S. and D. Dansereau (2001). "Bilingual Knowledge Maps (BiK-Maps) in Second Language Vocabulary Learning." Journal of Experimental Education 70(1): 5-24.
not in ERIC

Bannister, S. and H. Atkinson (1998). "Concept Maps and Annotated Drawings: A Comparative Study of Two Assessment Tools." Primary Science Review 51: 3-5.
Abstract:
Use of concept mapping as an assessment tool allows links to be made between concepts, and shows both scientifically correct propositions and misconceptions. Annotated drawings offer an alternative form of expression to children who may hold ideas but find it difficult to express them in words or to recognize links between them. (PVD)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Barba, R. H. (1993). "The Effects of Embedding an Instructional Map in Hypermedia Courseware." Journal of Research on Computing in Education 25(4): 405-412.
Abstract:
Describes a study of high school students that investigated the impact of embedding an instructional map into hypermedia courseware on student achievement. Treatment of experimental and control groups is described, results of pretests and posttests are compared, and implications for software designers and teachers are suggested. (Contains 23 references.) (LRW)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Baroody, A. J. and B. H. Bartels (2001). "Assessing understanding in mathematics with concept mapping." Mathematics in School 30(3): 24-27.

Baroody, A. J. and R. Coslick (1998). Fostering Children's Mathematical Power. Mayweh, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Baroody, A. J. and B. H. Bartels (2000). "Using Concept Maps To Link Mathematical Ideas." Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School 5(9): 604-609.

Abstract:
Illustrates possible uses of concept maps in mathematics classrooms which can show the degree of students' understanding of mathematical concepts and connections. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Bascones, J. and J. D. Novak (1985). "Alternative instructional systems and the development of problem solving skills in physics." European Journal of Science Education 7(3): 253-261.

Baugh, N. G. and K. G. Mellott (1998). "Clinical Concept Mapping as Preparation for Student Nurses' Clinical Experiences." Journal of Nursing Education 37(6): 253-256.
Abstract:
Clinical concept mapping promotes critical thinking and prepares nursing students for clinical experience by helping them organize patient data and view patients holistically. It aids their assessment of what they know and what they still need to learn. (SK)

Notes:
Journal availability: Slack, Inc., 6900 Grove Road, Thorofare, NJ 08086-9447.

Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080)

Beall, H. and S. Prescott (1994). "Concepts and Calculations in Chemistry Teaching and Learning." Journal of Chemical Education 71(2): 111-112.
Abstract:
Conceptual understanding of chemistry is an important issue in chemistry education. Examination questions with word answers are one way of reinforcing and testing conceptual knowledge and should be included in chemistry courses. Students involved in this study felt they did better on numerical questions and poorer on conceptual questions than they actually did. Compares calculational and conceptual test questions. (PVD)


Publication type:
Guides-Viewpoints (opinion papers, position papers, essays, etc.)(120); Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Beccerra-Fernandez, I. and D. Aha (1999). Case-based problem solving for knowledge management systems. Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Florida AI Research Symposium, Menlo Park, AAAI Press.

Beissner, K., D. Jonassen, et al. (1994). "Using and selecting graphic techniques to acquire structural knowledge." Performance Improvement Quarterly 7(4): 20-38.

Belisle, C., R. Zeiliger, et al. (1997). Integrated Cognitive Engineering at the Interface, in proceedings of the Second International Conference on Cognitive Technology,. CT'97, Aizu, Japan, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos.
Because human experience accumulates in the structural properties of tools, the design and use of tools is a means by which social knowledge is transmitted. What happens then when a new tool, for which no widespread practices exist, is in the process of being iteratively designed? We present here a case study of integrated system design and cognitive engineering of an innovative Web navigator named NESTOR. Working within a tool mediation perspective, and following an intergrated design methodology, we present user needs and problems with hyperspace navigation, then we review briefly the relevant proactive scientific knowledge with concerns for both the technological advances and the cognitive issues. We then discuss the results obtained with a first prototype based on the production by learners, of graphical representations of their own navigational experience. We argue that this 'production' helps learners to better understand their own experience while developing mastery of cognitive tools.

Bereiter, C. and M. Scardemalia (1989). Intentional learning as a goal of instruction. Knowing, Learning and Instruction. L. B. Resnick. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 361-392.

Berg-Cross, G. and M. E. Price (1989). "Acquiring and managing knowledge using a conceptual structures approach: Introduction and framework." IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 19: 513-527.

Beyerbach, B. and J. Smith (1990). "Using a computerized concept mapping program to assess preservice teachers' thinking about effective teaching." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 961-971.

Billings, M. and M. A. Kunkel (1991). Research Themes in Counseling Psychology: A Concept Map.
Abstract:
None of the various organizational methods (archival, categorical, encyclopedic, taxonomic, and statistical) employed to organize, classify, and categorize research in counseling psychology has been able to capture a sense of the whole; none appreciates the relations among research topics. Concept mapping, a research method in which nonmetric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis are applied to unstructured card sorts, represents an alternative approach that incorporates archival, categorical, and statistical elements of previous efforts. A study was conducted which used topical titles of The Counseling Psychologist as the source of concept map items. Research participants (N=52) were members of the American Psychological Association's Division 17 (Counseling Psychology). They completed rating sheets in which they indicated the perceived professional significance each title had for them and then sorted into piles cards on which each
title was printed along with the instruction to sort the cards in a way that made sense to them. To the extent that participants meaningfully arrayed and prioritized these research titles, an alternative organizational scheme resulted. Concept mapping appears to be a viable alternative research method for investigations wherein the contents and underlying structure of phenomena are areas of focus. (NB)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Convention of the American Psychological Association (99th, San Francisco, CA, August 16-20, 1991).

Bischoff, P. J. and O. R. Anderson (2001). "Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology." Journal of Biological Education 35(2): 81-88.
Abstract:
Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express ecological understandings using higher order cognitive operations over several weeks. (Contains 38 references.) (Author/ASK)
Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Bishop, K. and P. Denley (1997). "The Fundamental Role of Subject Matter Knowledge in the Teaching of Science." School Science Review 79(286): 65-71.
Abstract:
Considers the strategies of peer group review and concept mapping, both of which faculties in higher education might employ in partnership with schools to reestablish the fundamental role that subject matter knowledge has in science teaching. (DDR)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Bitner, B. L. (1996). "Interactions between Hemisphericity and Learning Type, and Concept Mapping Attributes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers."
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine whether hemisphericity and learning type are related to concept mapping attributes of preservice and inservice teachers. In addition, differences in concept mapping by program (i.e., preservice elementary/middle school and secondary science teachers and inservice elementary/middle school teachers), learning type, and hemisphericity were investigated. Hemisphericity and learning type were measured by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator and 4MAT Learning Type Measure respectively. Concept maps were constructed by the teachers and scored on a seven attribute rubric. Statistically significant intercorrelations were found between hemisphericity and learning type as well as between the attributes within the concept maps. However, concept mapping attributes did not correlate significantly with hemisphericity and learning type. The ANOVA (Analysis Of Variance) indicated that the inservice elementary/middle school teachers performed significantly !
better in concept mapping than the preservice
elementary/middle school and secondary science teachers. Contains 21 references. (Author)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (St. Louis, MO, March 31-April 4, 1996).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Blake, A. and D. Mann (2000). "Making Knowledge Tangible." TRIZ Journal.

Blankenship, J. and D. F. Dansereau (2000). "The Effect of Animated Node-Link Displays on Information Recall." Journal of Experimental Education 68(4): 293-308.
Studied attentional effects of animation on the processing of information from node-link maps and text by randomly assigning 40 college students to static node-link map presentation, 40 to animated node-link presentation, 29 to static text presentation, and 27 to animated text presentation. Participants recalled more main-idea information from animated node-link maps than from static maps or animated text. (SLD)
Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Bloom, B. S. (1984). "The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of gorup interation as effective as one-on-one tutoring." Educational Researcher 13(6): 4-16.

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Cognitive domains. New York, David McKay Company, Inc.

Bocker, H., G. Fischer, et al. (1986). The Enhancement of Understanding through Visual Representations. CHI 1986 Proceedings, Boston, MA.

Boff, K. R., D. L. Monk, et al. (1991). Computer-aided human factors for system designers. Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA:, Human Factors Society.

Boff, K. R., D. L. Monk, et al. (1991). Computer-aided human factors for system designers. In Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA, Human Factors Society.

Bolte, L. A. (1997). Assessing Mathematical Knowledge with Concept Maps and Interpretive Essays. American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL, March 24, 1997.
Abstract:
This study explores the combined use of concept maps and interpretive essays as a method of assessment in three mathematics courses. The primary objectives were to describe and document: (1) the use of concept maps and written essays to assess the connectedness of students' knowledge; (2) the correlation between students' scores on the concept maps and written essays, course exams, and final grades; and (3) the degree to which learning was enhanced through the use of concept maps and written essays. The subjects included prospective elementary teachers (N=23), calculus students (N=63), and prospective secondary mathematics teachers (N=17). Results indicate that concept maps combined with written essays are viable tools for enhancing and assessing students' organization of mathematical knowledge. Contains 24 references. (DDR)

Bolte, L. A. (1999). "Enhancing and Assessing Preservice Teachers' Integration and Expression of Mathematical Knowledge." Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education 2(2): 167-185.
Abstract:
The construction of concept maps and the writing of interpretive essays in mathematics courses for preservice and continuing teachers provide students with rich learning experiences. Provides examples of the use of concepts maps and interpretive essays in teacher education. Mentions their benefits to teachers and students and their uses in the assessment processes. Contains 30 references. (Author/ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Bolte, L. A. (1998). "Integrating and Expressing Concepts from Calculus I." Primus 8(1): 28-38.
Abstract:
Describes how constructing concept maps and writing accompanying interpretive essays can be used in a Calculus I course to improve students' understanding of important concepts and help teachers assess students' knowledge. This combined approach allows students to explicitly communicate their knowledge and a chance to view mathematics as a creative activity. Contains 14 references. (Author/ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

BouJaoude, S. (2000). "What Might Happen If...?" Science Teacher 67(4): 44-47.

Abstract:
Presents a futures wheel as a teaching tool that can be used to analyze science-related social issues. Provides an example to explain the development of the wheel. Lists topics that can be analyzed using the futures wheel. (YDS)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Bradley, J. and K. Harbison-Briggs (1989). "The Symptom-Component Approach to Knowledge Acquisition." SIGART Newsletter 108(Knowledge Acquisition, Special Issue).

Bradley, J. and K. Harboson-Briggs (1989). The sympton-component approach to knowledge acquisition. SIGART Newsletter. C. R. Westphal and K. L. McGraw. New York, ACM. 108: 70-76.

Bradley, J., K. Harboson-Briggs, et al. (1989). "the sympton-component approach to knowledge acquisition." Knowledge Acquisition. SIGART Newsletter 108( Special Issue): 70-76.

Brem, S. K. (2000). Using Models of Science To Critically Evaluate Scientific Arguments: A Look at Students, Science Education, and the Popular Media.
Abstract:
This paper examines how conceptions regarding the legitimate purposes and day-to-day course of science influence students' evaluations of science in the popular media. The students involved in this project attend a secondary all-girls school. Their concept of science focused on practical, life-enhancing goals pursued through the complex, time-consuming process of modeling nature. Students used this conception to critically evaluate popular accounts of science. Science and scientists congruent with this image were more admired and trusted than activities and individuals that were not. Their critical ability is thus limited by the limitations of their model of science. Teaching the process and dynamics of scientific activity may help students critically evaluate science. A Web-based curriculum was used to provide students with notetaking capabilities and concept mapping functions. (Contains 12 references.) (Author/YDS)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000).

Briscoe, C. and S. U. LaMaster (1991). " Meaningful Learning in College Biology through Concept Mapping." American Biology Teacher 53(4): 214-219.
Abstract:
The potential of concept mapping, a learning strategy, coupled with assessments oriented toward problem solving used to facilitate meaningful learning, is examined. How students make and use concept maps in studying and the factors that influence the way they are made and used are discussed. Sample concept maps are included. (KR)

Burggraf, F. (1998). Thinking Connections: Concept Maps for Life Science. Book B.
Abstract:
The concept maps contained in this book (for grades 7-12) span 35 topics in life science. Topics were chosen using the National Science Education Standards as a guide. The practice exercise in concept mapping is included to give students an idea of what the tasks ahead will be in content rich maps. Two levels of concept maps are included for each topic so that teachers can easily differentiate their assignments. The structure, features, and notations of concept maps are fully explained. Map topics relate to cell biology, plant biology, animal biology, and human biology. (Author/DDR)


Notes:
Book A (for grades 4-6) has not yet been published.

Butler, A. (2001). "Preservice music teachers' conceptions of teaching effectiveness, microteaching experiences, and teaching performance." Journal of Research in Music Education 49(3): 258-272.

Buzan, T. and B. Buzan (1996). The Mind Map Book: How to Use Radiant Thinking to Maximize Your Brain's Untapped Potential, Plume.

Callison, D. (2001). "Concept Mapping." School Library Media Activities Monthly 17(10): 30-32.
Explains concept mapping as a heuristic device that is helpful in visualizing the relationships between and among ideas. Highlights include how to begin a map; brainstorming; map applications, including document or information summaries and writing composition; and mind mapping to strengthen note-taking. (LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Callman, J. L. and A. Others (1985). "Computer-Based Semantic Network in Molecular Biology: A Demonstration."
Abstract:
This paper analyzes the hardware and software features that would be desirable in a computer-based semantic network system for representing biology knowledge. It then describes in detail a prototype network of molecular biology knowledge that has been developed using Filevision software and a Macintosh computer. The prototype contains about 100 linked concept maps. Design principles are delineated. For example, the decision was made not to include direct links between members of a set such as "RNA" and "DNA." To move from one to the other in the network it is necessary to move up the hierarchy to "nucleic acids" and back down. This requirement is pedagogically attractive and reduces clutter. Many other such principles are required to assure consistency in map generation. Working with information in the computer-based semantic network provides an experience heretofore unavailable. Project members find it is fun, and somewhat challenging even
for creators of the database, to find paths from point X to point Y in the database. Moving through the net requires an integration of concepts that seems qualitatively different from that encountered in most other interactions with academic subject matter. (Author)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (59th, San Francisco, CA, March 28-April 1, 1986). For related papers presented in this same set, see SE 046 537-540.


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Canas, A., K. M. Ford, et al. (2001). "Online concept maps: Enhancing collaborative learning by using technology with concept maps." The Science Teacher 68(4): 49-51.
Abstract:
Describes a collaborative software system that allows students from distant schools to share claims derived from their concept maps. Sharing takes place by accessing The Knowledge Soup, a repository of propositions submitted by students and stored on a computer server. Students can use propositions from other students to enhance their concept maps. (SAH)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Cañas, A. (1999, November). "Algunas Ideas sobre la Educación y las Herramientas Computacionales Necesarias para Apoyar su Implementación." Revista RED: Educación y Formación Profesional a Distancia, Ministry of Education, Spain.

Cañas, A. (1997, November). "Colaboración en la Construcción de Conocimiento Mediante Mapas Conceptual es." VIII Congreso Internacional sobre Tecnología y Educación a Distancia, San José, Costa Rica.

Cañas, A., D. B. Leake, et al. (2001). Combining concept mapping with CBR: Towards Experience-Based Support for Knowledge Modeling.

Cañas, A. (1998). Concept maps: New Uses and the Underlying Technology. Mountain View, CA, NASA Ames Research Center.

Cañas, A. J., J. Coffey, et al. (1997, May). "El-Tech: A Performance Support System with Embedded Training for Electronics Technicians,". Eleventh Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Symposium, Sanibel Island, FL.

Cañas, A. J., K. M. Ford, et al. (1995, July). "Knowledge Construction and Sharing in Quorum." Seventh World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Washington DC.

Cañas, A. J., D. B. Leake, et al. (1999). Managing, Mapping and Manipulating Conceptual Knowledge: Exploring the Synergies of Knowledge Management & Case-Based Reasoning. Menlo Park CA, AAAI Press.

Care, I. and D. Mann (2001). "Using MINDMAPS with TRIZ." TRIZ Journal.

Carey, S. (1986). "Cognitive science and science education." American Psychologist 41(10): 1123-1130.

Carley, K. and M. Palmquist (1992). "Extracting, representing and analyzing mental models." Social Forces 70(3): 601-636.

Carlson, P. and V. Larralde (1995). "Combining Concept Mapping and Adaptive Advice to Teach Reading Comphrehension." Journal of Universal Computer Science 1(3).
Abstract: When driven by simple models of information processing, reading instruction focuses on basic decoding skills centering on words and sentences. Factoring in advanced cognitive studies adds at least two more dimensions. First, readers must learn a collection of strategies for constructing meaning from text. Second, and most importantly, readers must develop enough situational awareness to diagnose a text and know which strategy to deploy. Teaching intellectual crafts that involve not only base-line performative skills but also a repertoire of problem-solving heuristics, and the metacognitive maturity to orchestrate multi-leveled activities, works well in a master-apprentice model. However, one-on-one instruction is far too labor-intensive to be commonplace in the teaching of reading. This paper describes a computerized learning environment for teaching the conceptual patterns of critical literacy. While the full implementation of the software treats both reading and writing, this paper covers only the reading aspects of R-WISE (Reading and Writing in a Supportive Environment).
(Online - not From ERIC)

Carnot, M., B. Dunn, et al. (1999). The Effectiveness of Computer Interfaces in Information Search. Southeastern Psychological Association, Savannah, GA.

Carnot, M. J., B. Dunn, et al. (2000, May). Learning Style Differences in Effective Use of Computer Interfaces. Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.

Carnot, M. J., B. Dunn, et al. (2000, June). Learning Style, Interface and Question Order Effects on Search Performance. American Psychological Society, Miami Beach.

Cavalli-Sforza, V., G. Babrys, et al. (1992). Engaging students in scientific activity and scientific controversy. AAAI-92 Workshop on Communicating Scientific and Technical Information. K. Swaminathan. Menlo Park, CA, Morgan Kaufman: 99-114.

Cawley, J. (1999). Validation of concept maps as a tool to predict performance on course exams. American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.

Cecez-Kecmanovic, D. and P. Dalmaris "Knowledge mapping as sensemaking in organisations."

Center, W. T. R. (???). Concept Mapping and Curriculum (web resource).

Chang, K., Y. Sung, et al. (2002). "The effect of concept mapping to enhance text comprehension and summarization." Journal of Experimental Education 7(1): 5-23.
Abstract:
Although graphic strategies, such as graphic organizers and knowledge maps, have proved helpful for text learning, certain important application issues such as surface processing and cognitive overload have yet to be resolved. The authors tested the learning effects of a concept-mapping strategy. They designed 3 concept- mapping approaches--map correction, scaffold fading, and map generation--to determine their effects on students' text comprehension and summarization abilities. The experimental results from 126 5th graders showed that the map-correction method enhanced text comprehension and summarization abilities and that the scaffold-fading method facilitated summarization ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Chang, K. E., Y. T. Sung, et al. (2001). " Learning through Computer-based Concept Mapping with Scaffolding Aid." Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 17(1): 21-33.
Abstract:
A computer-based concept mapping system was developed that provides two learning environments: "construct-by- self," where the system provides students with evaluation results and hints for feedback, and "construct-on- scaffold," where students also receive an incomplete concept map. The "construct-on-scaffold" had better effect for learning biology. Both are helpful for students completing their concept maps. (Author/AEF)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Charles, K. and R. Nason (2000). "Young Children's Partitioning Strategies." Educational Studies in Mathematics 43(2): 191-221.
Abstract:
Studies knowledge of young children's partitioning strategies by setting out not only to identify new partitioning strategies, but also to develop taxonomy for classifying young children's partitioning strategies in terms of their abilities. Provides taxonomy utilizing children's informal partitioning strategies as the foundation upon which to further develop their understandings of the partitive quotient fraction construct. (Contains 39 references.) (Author/ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Chase, P. A., K. L. Franson, et al. (2001). "Discovery Maps: A Student-Centered Approach To Reinforcing the Curriculum." American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 65(1): 74-77.
Abstract:
Describes a project which involved first- and second-year pharmacy students in making Discovery Maps focused on specific diseases. The maps were intended to help students remember and relate key pieces of information from all their courses. Feedback from students and faculty was very positive. (EV)


Notes:
Manuscript based on a portfolio submitted to the 2000 Council of Faculties Innovations in Teaching Competition.


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Cheak, A., G. Chung, et al. (2002). An Investigation of the Feasibility of an Automated Approach to Classifying Open-Ended Concept Map Links. American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Chen, H., A. L. Houston, et al. (1998). " Internet Browsing and Searching: User Evaluations of Category Map and Concept Space Techniques." Journal of the American Society for Information Science May 15 1998 v49 n7 p582-603 49(7): 582-603.
Abstract:
This study found that a Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm for browsing can categorize a large and eclectic Internet-information space into manageable sub-spaces that users can navigate to find relevant home pages. An automatically generated concept-space algorithm for searching was shown to enhance keyword-based Internet searching. Contains 65 references. (PEN)


Notes:
Special issue topic: "Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Emerging Information Systems Applications."

Chiappe, D. (1998). "Similarity, relevance and the comparison process." Metaphor and Symbol 13(1): 17-30.

Chinn, C. A., A. M. O'Donnell, et al. (2000). "The structure of Discourse in Collaborative Learning." Journal of Experimental Education 69(1): 77-97.

Chiu, C.-H., W.-S. Wu, et al. (2000). Collaborative Concept Mapping Processes Mediated by Computer. In: WebNet 2000 World Conference on the WWW and Internet Proceedings (San Antonio, TX, October 30-November 4th, 2000); see IR 020 507.
Abstract:
This paper reports on a study that investigated group learning processes in computer-supported collaborative concept mapping. Thirty 5th grade Taiwanese students were selected to attend a computer-mediated collaborative concept mapping activity. Dialog messages and map products tracked and recorded by the mapping system were analyzed. The exchanges in the dialog data were divided into four groups: opening a discussion; introducing a concept; establishing a link; and reconsidering the map. According to the analysis of the students' discourse record and group concept maps, it was found that the students took different approaches to develop their group concept maps. Four patterns of the computer-mediated collaborative concept mapping processes were identified: concept introduction first; limited concept introduction; less link establishment; and proposition construction oriented. In addition, different collaborative mapping approaches generated
different concept maps. The findings suggest that students in a computer-mediated collaborative concept mapping activity should be guided or instructed to undertake some particular approach to generate satisfactory maps. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/MES)


Notes:


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Chiu, C.-H., C.-C. Huang, et al. (2000). " The Evaluation and Influence of Interaction in Network Supported Collaborative Concept Mapping." Computers & Education 34(1): 17-25.
Abstract:
This study of inservice and preservice teachers investigated group interaction processes in networked supported collaborative concept mapping and the influence these group interaction processes had upon group concept mapping performance. Results showed that group concept mapping performance was significantly correlated to the quantity of group interaction, particularly complex cooperation interaction. (Author/LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Chmeilewski, T. and D. Dansereau (1998). "Enhancing the recall of text: Knowledge mapping training promotes implicit transfer." Journal of Educational Psychology 90(3): 407-413.
In an experiment involving 60 college students, students trained with knowledge maps retained more macro-level ideas from text passages than students not given the training. In a second experiment with 53 college students, training facilitated recall of both macro-level and micro-level ideas. (SLD)

Chmielewski, T. L. and D. F. Dansereau (1998). Node-Link Mapping Promotes Top-Down Learning.
Abstract:
Transfer of training in the construction and use of knowledge maps to text comprehension was investigated. Knowledge maps (k-maps) are spatial/verbal arrays that represent information in the form of node-link diagrams. K-maps make the macrostructure of a body of information more easily available to the learner. Because k-maps emphasize relationships and organizational patterns, training a person in the construction and utilization of these displays may help them implicitly structure and encode information in a variety of other presentation formats. If training in k-mapping results in improved ability to learn without explicit use of the strategy, then this expensive training would be more cost-effective. Participants who received extensive training in the production and processing of k-maps were compared to controls (N=53). Differences in ability and motivation were controlled. Participants who received the training recalled significantly more macro and
micro level ideas. Results indicate that k-map training facilitated recall for ideas; however, students may not have been aware of the advantages they received from the training. Apparently, training in mapping promotes students to utilize a top-down learning set that facilitates their acquisition of text information. (Contains 7 references.) (EMK)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143)


M

Chmielewski, T. L., D. F. Dansereau, et al. (1998). " Using Common Region in Node-Link Displays: The Role of Field Dependence/Independence." Journal of Experimental Education 66(3): 197-207.
Abstract:
The role common region (CR) plays in acquiring scientific information from node-link displays was studied by testing 88 subjects under conditions of knowledge maps demonstrating or not demonstrating CR. Field-dependent subjects scored better than the field-independent subjects for maps demonstrating CR, whereas the opposite was true for maps not demonstrating CR. (MAK)


Notes:
Version of a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association (86th, Chicago, IL, May 1996).


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Cho, J.-i. (1988). An Investigation of Fifth and Eighth Grade Korean Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis.
Abstract:
Many researchers believe that prior knowledge is the single most important variable influencing learning. Learning in the classroom is determined or affected positively or negatively, to some degree, by the knowledge people bring to the classroom. This study was designed to: (1) assess fifth- and eighth-grade Korean students' misconceptions of concepts related to photosynthesis; and (2) investigate change in students' concept understanding as it related to logical reasoning ability, textbook emphasis and background variables. Results showed that students in both groups had misconceptions of concepts related to photosynthesis--the meaning of making food, the use of light by plants, the functions of plant roots and leaves, photosynthetic products, and requirements of elements. Reductions in misconceptions between grade 5 and grade 8 was on items regarding the use of light by plants, exchange of materials between organisms in a system, knowledge of glucose, protein, fat, and nit!
rogen, and the skill of reading a graph. Appendices
include a concept map of photosynthesis, tests, the questionnaire used, variable labels, correlation matrices, and a comparative achievement analysis. (RT)


Notes:
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University.


Publication type:
Dissertations/Theses-Doctoral (041); Reports-Tests, evaluation instruments (160)

Chou, C. and H. Lin (1997). "Navigation Maps in a Computer-Networked Hypertext Learning System."
Abstract:
A study of first-year college students (n=121) in Taiwan investigated the effects of navigation maps and learner cognitive styles on performance in searches for information, estimation of course scope, and the development of cognitive maps within a hypertext learning course. Students were tested to determine level of perceptual field dependence and assigned to one of five groups: no map, global map, local map, local tracking map, and all maps. Students searched particular sections, and browsed through the course "Introduction to Computer Networks" delivered by the Cooperative Remotely Accessible Learning (CORAL) system, a courseware browser. Navigation map type has significant effects on students' search steps, search efficiency, and development of cognitive maps. Subjects in the global map and all-map groups took fewer steps and had higher search efficiency than subjects in the other groups. Map type also contributed to a significant difference in
cognitive map development scores, with all-map and global map groups scoring higher than other map groups. Map type did not cause a significant effect on either search-task completeness or estimation accuracy. Cognitive style had a significant effect on subjects' cognitive map development, but did not have a significant effect on subjects' search performance. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/SWC)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (Albuquerque, NM, February 12-16, 1997). Figures have some Chinese text and may not reproduce clearly.


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Chung, G., H. E. Herl, et al. (1997). "Estimate of the Potential Costs and Effectiveness of Scaling Up CRESST Assessment Software."

Abstract:
This report examines issues in the scale-up of assessment software from the Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). "Scale-up" is used in a metaphorical sense, meaning adding new assessment tools to CRESST's assessment software. During the past several years, CRESST has been developing and evaluating a series of software products to measure various types of learning. Collectively, these are called the Integrated Assessment System. The integrated simulation CRESST has developed includes both collaborative and individual concept mapping tasks, a problem-solving search task, an explanation task, and a metacognitive questionnaire. New tools should measure one or more aspects of the CRESST model of learning, be stand-alone or integrate with other tools, have authoring capacity, use automated scoring, and be Internet- deployable. Specifications are listed for eight proposed tools, and each is evaluated for the CRESST
requirements. The tools are: (1) Collaborative Concept Mapper, a tool for group use; (2) Flowcharter, a tool to allow students to sequence events; (3) Idea Generator and Evaluator, a tool for group problem solving; (4) Model Simulator, a model building tool; (5) Networked Team Simulator, a team model builder; (6) Multimedia Concept Mapper, a multimedia tool for concept mapping; (7) Outliner, an organizing tool; and (8) Problem Solver, an instrument to measure problem solving processes. (Contains 4 tables and 13 references.) (SLD)


Publication type:
Guides-Statistical data (numeric, quantitative, etc.)(110); Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142)

Chung, G., E. Baker, et al. (2002). Knowledge Mapper Authoring System Prototype, CRESST, University of California, Los Angeles.

Chung, G. K. W. K., H. F. O'Neil, Jr., et al. (1999). "The use of computer-based collaborative knowledge mapping to measure team processes and team outcomes." Computers in Human Behavior 15(3-4)(3-4): 463-493.

FOUND IN:
Language: English
Key phrase:
Abstract: Examined the feasibility of using a computer-based, networked
collaborative knowledge mapping system to measure teamwork skills. A
knowledge map is a node-link-node representation of information, where nodes
represent concepts and links represent relationships between connected
concepts. The nature of the interaction between team members as they jointly
constructed a knowledge map was studied. Each team member was randomly
assigned to a team and communicated (anonymously) with other members by
sending pre-defined messages. Teamwork processes were measured by examining
message usage. Each message was categorized as belonging to 1 of 6 team
processes: (1) adaptability; (2) communication; (3) coordination; (4)
decision making; (5) interpersonal; and (6) leadership. Team performance was
measured by scoring each team's knowledge map using four expert maps as the
criterion. No significant correlations were found between the team processes
and team outcomes, due in part to a split-attention effect resulting from the
design of the user interface. However, students were able to successfully
construct knowledge maps using our system, suggesting that our general
approach to using networked computers to measure group processes remain
viable given existing alternatives.

Cicognani, A. (2000). "Concept mapping as a collaborative tool for enhanced online learning." Educational Technology and Society 3(3): 150-158.

Coco, C. (1999). " Instructional Scaffolding Intervention and Concept Mapping Outcomes among Diverse Learners in a Pre-Service Educational Psychology Course: A Model for Developing Expertise in Writing Expressions of Conceptual Understanding."
Abstract:
This study evaluated the effects of instructional scaffolding interventions (ISI) on preservice teachers' knowledge structures (e.g., concept maps) and short essay responses over time. Participants were 60 preservice teachers from two universities who were enrolled in one of three introductory psychology courses. One course was used as the experimental group, and the other courses became the comparison groups. ISI interventions consisted of a series of guided informational feedback sessions, following concept mapping and writing activities. The interventions were initiated in the experimental group to support learning that would enable higher levels of short essay responses, particularly among lower achieving students. Short essay question sheets were used to assess participants' written expressions of conceptual understanding of motivation theory. A three-group, multivariate repeated measures design was used to compare the knowledge
structure and short essay responses of students in both conditions. Seven criteria were used to judge the quality of each concept map. Results indicated that students' declarative and procedural knowledge, as well as metacognitive skills, developed. The expert-novices had a more developed knowledge of subject matter content, they knew how to represent their knowledge when engaged in a concept mapping task, and they were more aware of the task demands and the audience when engaged in a writing task. The appendixes present examples of concept maps and short essay responses, examples of students' concept maps with other students' feedback comments, and examples of collaborative concept maps. (SM)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 19-23, 1999).

Coffey, J. and A. Cañas (2000). A Learning Environment Organizer for Asynchronous Distance Learning Systems.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Coleman, L. J. (1992). "The Cognitive Map of a Master Teacher Conducting Discussions with Gifted Students." Exceptionality: A Research Journal 3(1): 1-16.
Abstract:
The patterns of thought and behavior used by a teacher as he "created" a discussion with a group of gifted/talented children were examined. A cognitive map illustrates the techniques used to further the discussion. The teacher's use of professional practical knowledge (knowledge about teaching that was gained from experience) is emphasized. (JDD)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Coleman, E. B. (1998). "Using explanatory knowledge during collaborative problem solving in science." Journal of the Learning Sciences 7(3 and 4): 387-427.
Evaluated the effects of a scaffolded explanation-based approach to
collaborative discussion on students' understanding of photosynthesis. 48
4th- and 5th-grade students, identified as having high or average
"intentional" approaches to learning, were divided into 3 groups (high,
average control, and average intervention). Students worked both
collaboratively and individually on 2 reasoning tasks in the domain of
photosynthesis. The results of the concept-mapping tasks indicate that the
average intervention group developed a more accurate scientific and
functional understanding of photosynthesis than the average control group who
did not receive the intervention. The scaffolded explanation-based
intervention did not have a significant effect on the structure of students'
explanations. The importance of the nature of students' discussion to advance
their beliefs about scientific phenomena is supported and the usefulness of
explanation and concept-mapping techniques as evaluative measures of student
knowledge during collaborative problem solving is emphasized. Appendices of
the Revised Implicit Learning Theory Interview, list of links for concept
map, Problem-Explanation Task on Photosynthesis, and an overview of procedure
are provided.

Coleman, E. B. (1998). "Using Explanatory Knowledge during Collaborative Problem Solving in Science." Journal of the Learning Sciences 7(3-4): 387-427.
Abstract:
Evaluates the effects of the scaffold explanation-based approach to collaborative discussion on students' understanding of photosynthesis. Forty-eight fourth- and fifth-grade students were divided into groups of high, average control (AC), and average intervention (AI). Students worked collaboratively and individually on two reasoning tasks. Results indicated that the AI students developed a more accurate scientific and functional understanding than did the AC group. (Author/SJR)
Notes:
Special issue: Learning through Problem Solving.
Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Conceicao-Runlee, S. and B. J. Daley (1998). Constructivist learning theory to web-based course design: An instructional design approach. 17th Annual Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing and Community Education, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana.
Conceicao-Runlee, S., & Daley, B. J. (1998). Constructivist learning theory to web-based course design: An instructional design approach.

Conklin, E. J. (2002 access date). The IBIS Manual: A Short Course in IBIS Methodology.

Conklin, J., C. Ellis, et al. (2002 access). "Towards an Ecological Theory of Sustainable Knowledge Networks."
virtual collaboration white paper
distributed teams
Boeing
World Bank
Bell Atlantic

Conklin, J. (2002 access). Visual Issue Mapping System: A Systematic Approach to Wicked Problems.

Cooke, N. J. (1992). "Eliciting semantic relations for empirically derived networks." International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 37: 721-750.

Cooke, N. J. and A. L. Rowe (1994). Evaluating mental model elicitation methods. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA.

Cooke, N. M. and J. E. McDonald (1986). A formal methodology for acquiring and representing expert knowledge. Proceedings of the IEEE. 74: 1422-1430.

Cooke, N., K. Neville, et al. (1996). "Procedural Network Representations of Sequential Data." Human-Computer Interaction 11: 29-68.

Cooke, N. J. (1994). "Varieties of knowledge elicitation techniques." International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 41: 801-849.

Cossette, P. and M. Audet (1992). "Mapping of an idiosyncratic schema." Journal of Management Studies 29(3): 325.

Costa, A. L., Ed. and B. Kallick, Ed. (2000). Activating & Engaging Habits of Mind. A Developmental Series, Book 2.
Abstract:
This book is the second in a four-book series on habits of mind. It translates a habits of mind approach to education into action using classroom-tested advice. Contributions come from practitioners in literature, math, music, foreign language, reading, character education, and social science. After "Series Foreword: Thinking on the Road of Life" (David Perkins) and "Preface to the Series" (Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick), there are 14 papers: (1) "Creating 'Thoughtful' Classroom Environments" (Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick); (2) "Toward a Mindful Language of Learning" (Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick); (3) "Using Questions To Challenge Students' Intellect" (Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick); (4) "Thinking Maps: Visual Tools for Activating Habits of Mind" (David Hyerle); (5) "Infusing Habits of Mind into Units, Lessons, and Learning Tasks" (Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick); (6) "Teaching the Habits of Mind Directly" (Arthur L. Costa and
Bena Kallick); (7) Using Habits of Mind To Look 'Inside the Text'" (Kathleen C. Reilly); (8) "An Integrated Approach to Teaching the Habits of Mind" (Nancy Skerritt and Emilie Hard); (9) "Discovering Habits of Mind in Mathematics" (Carol T. Lloyd); (10) "An Artistic Application of Habits of Mind" (Nadine McDermott); (11) "Foreign Language Instruction and the 'Sense-sational' Habits of Mind" (Gina Celeste Costa); (12) "Enhancing Reading Comprehension Instruction through Habits of Mind" (Thommie DePinto Piercy); (13) "Habits of Mind as Character Education" (Curtis Schnorr); and (14) "Getting Started" (Arthur L. Costa, Bena Kallick, and Lisa Davis). (Most papers contain references.) (SM)


Notes:
Foreword by David Perkins.


Publication type:
Books (010); General (020)

Cox, B. E., Z. Fang, et al. (1998). Preservice Teachers' Construction of Professional Knowledge: Teacher Learning about Literacy Education. National Reading Conference Yearbook. v47 p508-16: p508-16.
Abstract:
Uses concept maps to reveal important changes in the knowledge base of preservice teachers. Finds that preservice teachers in a school-based, three-course "literacy block" constructed richer, more professional, and more complete concept maps (relating more literacy teaching and subject-matter ideas together with logically appropriate connectors) than the university-based group with fewer hours in the elementary school. (SR)

Crandall, B. ((1989, April)). A comparative study of think-aloud and critical decision knowledge elicitation. ACM SIGART Newsletter, "Special Issue on Knowledge Acquisition." C. R. Westphal and K. L. McGraw. 108: 144-146.

Crandell, T. and A. Others (1996). "Empirical Evaluation of Concept Mapping: A Job Performance Aid for Writers." Technical Communication: Journal of the Society for Technical Communication 43(2): 157-163.
Abstract:
Compares revisions of the same chapter from a computer manual, one revision by a group using conventional revision techniques and another revision by a group using concept mapping. Finds that revision time was not significantly different between groups, nor were an editor's ratings, but that readers' comprehension was significantly higher with the concept-mapped versions. (SR)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Crippen, K. J., R. D. Curtright, et al. (2000). "Mole Mapping." Science Teacher 67(7): 36-39.
Abstract:
The abstract nature of the mole and its applications to problem solving make learning the concept difficult for students, and teaching the concept challenging for teachers. Presents activities that use concept maps and graphing calculators as tools for solving mole problems. (ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Cristea, A. and T. Okamoto (2001). "Object-oriented collaborative course authoring environment supported by concept mapping in MyEnglishTeacher." Educational Technology and Society 4(2): 104-115.

Cullen, J. (1990). "Using concept maps in chemistry: An alternative view." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 1067-1068.

Cummings, A. L., E. T. Halberg, et al. (1990). "Implications of counselor conceptualizations for counselor education." Counselor Education and Supervision 30: 120-134.

Curry, J., S. Haderlie, et al. (1999). "Specified Learning Goals and Their Effect on Learners' Representations of a Hypertext Reading Environment." International Journal of Instructional Media 26(1): 43-51.
Abstract:
Discusses hypertext reading environments, focusing on a study of university students that examined the nature of a reader's representation of hypertext content in the presence or absence of a specified learning objective. Discusses concept maps and suggests implications for instructional design. (Author/LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Czerniak, C. M. and J. J. Haney (1998). "The Effect of Collaborative Concept Mapping on Elementary Preservice Teachers' Anxiety, Efficacy, and Achievement in Physical Science." Journal of Science Teacher Education 9(4): 303-320.

Czuchry, M. and D. Dansereau (1996). "Node-link mapping as an alternative to traditional writing assignments in undergraduate psychology courses." Teaching of Psychology 23(2): 91-96.
evaluation of node link mapping technique in undergraduate psychology courses, college students
Abstract:
Explored the usefulness of a spatial-verbal technique called node-link mapping as an alternative to traditional writing assignments (TWAs) using 82 undergraduate psychology students. Ss worked individually or in groups of 2 or 3 on the mapping assignment and then completed an anonymous questionnaire. Ss rated the mapping assignment as more interesting, more informative, and no more difficult than a TWA. Ss also preferred the mapping assignment to a TWA. Ss' comments suggest that the mapping assignment helped them organize and remember information better than the TWA.

Daley, B. J., C. R. Shaw, et al. (1999). "Concept Maps: A Strategy to Teach and Evaluate Critical Thinking." Journal of Nursing Education 38(1): 42-47.
Abstract:
Nursing students in six clinical groups each created three concept maps over a semester. Statistically significant differences in conceptual and critical thinking were found between the first and third maps. (SK)


Notes:
Journal availability: Slack, Inc., 6900 Grove Rd., Thorofare, NJ 08086.


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Daley, B. J. (1996). "Concept maps: linking nursing theory to clinical nursing practice." The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 27: 17-27.

D'Amore, R., M. Konchady, et al. (2000). "Knowledge mapping aids discovery of organizational information." The EDGE Newsletter.

Dana, N. F. (1993). "Elementary School Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of Social Studies Teaching and Learning: A Report on Concept Mapping."
Abstract:
This paper reports a study on how prospective elementary school teachers make sense of teaching social studies through conceptual mapping, and therefore provide an opportunity for teacher educators to assess the value of conceptual mapping as a pedagogical tool. Pre- and post-course concept mapping was incorporated into three sections of an elementary school social studies methods course. The general research questions included: (1) How do preservice teachers make sense of teaching elementary school social studies? (2) How do preservice teachers experience the sense making process of constructing a concept map to organize and represent their thinking about teaching elementary school social studies? (3) In what ways are concept maps a viable tool for teacher educators to use to assess student thinking about elementary school social studies? The data obtained was used to generate two assertions. The first assertion is that concept mapping is a viable tool to help
prospective teachers reflect on their memories and conceptions of elementary school social studies. Concept maps constructed by prospective elementary school teachers as they enter methods courses indicate that they view social studies as a body of facts that exists independent of the individual. The second assertion is that final course concept mapping engages prospective teachers in the process of constructing personal knowledge regarding the teaching of elementary school social studies, as they reflect on their experiences in light of what they have learned throughout the semester. During map construction, prospective teachers reflect on their beliefs regarding knowledge as they pass through four stages: (1) comfort; (2) trepidation and frustration; (3) resolution; and (4) elation and pride. (DK)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council for the Social Studies (Nashville, TN, November 1993).


Publication type:
Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Dansereau, D. F., S. M. Dees, et al. (1995). "Node-link mapping and the evaluation of drug abuse counseling sessions." Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 9(3): 195-203.
Node-link mapping is a visual representation system that can be used in group and individual counseling sessions to illustrate clients' problems, issues, and plans. One hundred sixty-nine methadone treatment clients and their 10 counselors evaluated each of their individual and group sessions during a 2.5-month period by using the Session Evaluation Questionnaire (W. B. Stiles, 1980) and map rating items. A series of multivariate analyses of variance and correlational analyses indicated that the use of mapping (including the quantity and quality of mapping) was positively related to higher ratings of session depth by both clients and counselors. In addition, mapped group sessions were rated higher on several evaluative dimensions than were mapped individual sessions.

Dansereau, D., G. W. Joe, et al. (1993). "Node-link mapping: A visual representation strategy for enhancing drug abuse counselling." Journal of Counseling Psychology 40(4): 385-395.

Daughtry, D. and M. A. Kunkel (1993). "Experience of Depression in College Students: A Concept Map." Journal of Counseling Psychology 40(3): 316-323.
Abstract:
Used concept mapping, alternative methodological approach combining qualitative and quantitative strategies, to clarify scope and interrelations among elements of experience of depression in 78 college students. Whereas participants' experience of depression included affective and somatic symptoms consistent with generally accepted diagnostic criteria, experience of depression was not limited to these domains. (Author/NB)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Davis, R., H. Shrobe, et al. (1993). "What is knowledge representation." The AI Magazine 14(Spring): 17-33.

De Simone, C. and E. Oka (1999). "Making connections efficiently: a comparison of two approaches used by college students to construct networks." Contemporary Educational Psychology 24: 55-69.
This study compared the effects of two approaches to networking. The major focus was to examine the extent to which the mental construction of networks was sufficient for recall to occur. Two intact classes of students, with 18 and 21 students, respectively, participated in this study. Experimental participants were taught to construct their own networks both on paper and mentally while control participants were not. Recall of ideas was assessed at the pretest and at the posttest using a free-written recall task and a multiple-choice test. The results showed that networking mentally is as effective for recalling ideas and more time-efficient than networking on paper. Moreover, participants used different networking modalities depending on the passage to be read and the level of detail they were attempting to recall. The results are promising as they provide college students with a powerful tool that encourages cognitive processing without unnecessarily depleting their time resources. However, the results of this study also reveal that some initial experience with the strategy is necessary.

De Simone, C., R. F. Schmid, et al. (2001). "Supporting the learning process with collaborative concept mapping using computer-based communication tools and processes." Educational Research & Evaluation 7(2-3): 263-283.
Studied the effects of a combination of student collaboration, concept mapping, and electronic technologies with 26 students in a graduate level learning theories class. Findings suggest that concept mapping and collaborative learning techniques complement each other, and that students found the combined approach useful. (SLD)
Notes:
Special issue titled "Educational Technology."
Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-

De Weijze, R. C. (1998). "Concept mapping for concept engineering [learning process]." International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning 8(1-2): 90-108.
In task performance support, but especially during learning tasks, reality is first discovered through perception. Perceptual elements (notes), bearing reality's
richness, do not recognize this fact until concepts shed some light upon them. This is possible because concepts substantiate their meaning by relating the
memorized perceptual elements. Still, however, the person should ascribe an element to a concept or allow a concept to accommodate it. The element thus
inherits meanings from contexts produced by different concepts. Within limits of tolerance, the confrontation between the associative logical or moral
consciousness of different contexts calls for a deeper appreciation of intuition and thereby for a more complete understanding of real life. This paper describes the
role of conceptual representation in one's learning from prior knowledge, intuition and conceptual awareness. [Journal Article; 9 Refs]

Dees, S. M., D. F. Dansereau, et al. (1992). "Using knowledge maps and scripted cooperation to inform college students about patterns of behavior related to recurring abuse of alcohol." Addictive Behaviors 17(4): 307-318.
Examined the effectiveness of using a specific information format (graphic representations called knowledge maps) and an information processing strategy (scripted cooperation) in teaching 111 university students about behavior patterns that underlie recurring abuse of alcohol in this 3-session, 6-hr study. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 materials format conditions (map vs text format) and to 1 of 2 processing strategy conditions (individual processing vs scripted interaction with a partner). Results indicate that map format facilitated recall of the pattern information; processing with a partner appeared to enhance perception of the multidimensional nature of behavior that supports alcohol use.

Dees, S. M. and D. F. Dansereau (1993). "Using schematic organizers to help college students organize personal concepts and behavior related to alcohol and cocaine use." Addictive Behaviors 18(6): 645-657.
Assessed the perceived effectiveness of using 2 types of schematic, graphic organizers (maps and conceptual matrices) to organize personal understanding of alcohol and cocaine behavior patterns. Participants in this 3-session, 6-hr study were 111 students who were randomly assigned to either schema (matrix/map) or nonschema (essay) conditions. The dependent measure, perceived usefulness of an activity, was defined in terms of 3 factors (use for personal insights, motivational aspects of an activity, and use for counseling purposes) and was assessed through 4 postactivity questionnaires. Verbal ability played an important role: Map organizers for alcohol experiences were perceived as more useful than essay writing by below-median verbal ability Ss. For organizing personal knowledge of reasons and consequences, essay writing was perceived as more useful.

Dicheva, D. and L. Aroyo (2000). An approach to intelligent information handling in web-based learning environments. Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence. IC-AI'2000, Las Vegas, NV, USA.
This paper discusses an integrated approach to information handling and knowledge management in web-based open-ended learning environments. It supports both learners and instructors in information structuring and task-oriented processing and usage. AIMS, a web-based intelligent tool for task-based information and performance support is implemented to exemplify the theoretical assumptions of this approach. AIMS focuses on three important aspects of the information handling process: information structuring, information visualization, and user centered approach. We employ concept maps (CM) to build a subject domain ontology and use it as a basis for defining course structures. The domain CM is also used for attractive nonlinear visualization and conceptual graphical navigation of the subject domain and the search results, thus allowing for more efficient information searches. In order to provide appropriate adaptation to the individual information needs and preferences of the learners AIMS models their behaviors.

Ding, Y. (1998). "Visualization of Intellectual Structure in Information Retrieval: Author Cocitation Analysis." International Forum on Information and Documentation 231(1): 25-35.
Abstract:
An author cocitation analysis of information retrieval research (1987 to 1997) from Social Scisearch via DIALOG analyzed the top 40 authors to reveal the intellectual structure of information retrieval. Concludes that cocitation analysis contributes to the understanding of intellectual structures in the sciences and possibly in other areas when they rely on formal scholarly communication. Contains 49 references. (PEN)


Notes:
Journal availability: FID Secretariat, PO Box 90402, 2509 LK THE HAGUE, Netherlands; e-mail: fid@python.konbib.nl


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Dochy, F. J. R. C. (1991). "Mapping "Prior Knowledge" or "Expertise": A Tentative Outline. A Conceptual Map of Prior Knowledge and a Model for Research into the Domain-Specific Prior Knowledge State (PKS)."

Abstract:
In the context of a research project on the role of prior knowledge state (PKS) in the learning process in a modular education system, a study of the literature was done in order to construct a conceptual map of "prior knowledge." In addition, a study was carried out in order to operationalize the concept of prior knowledge, to construct a conceptual map of prior knowledge terminology, and to investigate how the PKS could be operationalized using a number of variables. A questionnaire was developed to examine conceptualizations of the PKS and methods of establishing it. The questionnaire was sent to 27 Dutch and Flemish speaking experts who research prior knowledge, and responses were received from 17. Also explored were methods for measuring a student's PKS. Data collected from the literature review and from an enquiry among specialists are reproduced and interpreted to form a proposed model for research into PKS. Fourteen figures illustrate the discussion,
with figure 5 depicting the proposed model and figures 1 and 2 in Dutch. (Contains 239 references.) (SLD)


Publication type:
Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142)

Dochy, F. J. R. C. and P. A. Alexander (1995). "Mapping Prior Knowledge: A Framework for Discussion among Researchers." European Journal of Psychology of Education 10(3): 225-242.
Abstract:
Reviews the current literature concerning prior knowledge in an attempt to clarify problems with the terminology. Identifies the three main problems: lack of definition or vagueness, nominal versus real definitions, and different names/same constructs or same name/different constructs. Includes a conceptual map of prior knowledge terminology. (MJP)


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Dochy, F. J. R. C. and V. M. J. Gorissen (1992). "Methods for Investigating the Structure of the Individual's Knowledge Base."
Abstract:
This report described and analyzed different methods for constructing a student's cognitive map in order to study the development and use of domain-specific prior knowledge. Cognitive maps provide accounts of student trajectories over courses and individual or group profiles of learners' strengths and weaknesses at the course or multicourse level. Methods are grouped into: (1) clinical interviews with individual students; (2) word-association or word-sorting tasks (including free recall); (3) writing methods (e.g., writing definitions or choosing preferred statements); (4) bipolar dimension tasks; and (5) think-aloud methods, such as verbal protocols. The free recall (word association) method is considered most appropriate for the planned research. Two figures illustrate the concepts discussed. (Contains 32 references.) (SLD)


Publication type:
Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142)

Dodson, D. (1989). Interaction with knowledge systems through connection diagrams: please adjust your diagrams. Reseach and Development in Expert Systems V. B. Kelly and A. Rector. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Dorough, D. K. and J. A. Rye (1997). "Mapping for Understanding." Science Teacher 64(1): 36-41.
Abstract:
Discusses the use of concept maps as an instructional strategy and the construction and scoring of concept maps. Lists Internet sites for information and tools on concept mapping. (JRH)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Dorsey, D. W., G. Campbell, et al. (1999). "Assessing knowledge structures: Relations with experience and posttraining performance." Human Performance 12(1): 31-57.
Focuses on the construct validity of two methodologies for
assessing cognitive organization or "knowledge structures." Validity evidence
is evaluated by considering the complex interrelations among experience,
knowledge structures, and training outcomes. These relations are explored in
the context of a laboratory-based, computer-related training initiative with
88 17-25 and 35-43 yr old computer users. Results are presented that suggest
that certain types of prior experience and some indicators of knowledge
structures have significant relations with posttraining performance. However,
the validity evidence gathered in this study does not support the notion that
the two knowledge structure assessment methods used are capturing equivalent
aspects of knowledge. Moreover, context effects are indicated such that the
relations among knowledge structures, experience, and training outcomes vary
as a function of the set of concepts used in structural assessment. General
implications for research on training, knowledge acquisition, and performance
are considered.

Eden, C. (1988). "Cognitive mapping." European Journal of Operational Research 36(1-13).

Eden, C. and F. Ackerman (2001). "Group Decision and Negotiation in Strategy Making." Group Decision and Negotiation 10: 119-140.

Eden, C. (1992). "On the nature of cognitive maps." Journal of Management Studies, 29, 261-265. 29(261-265).

Edmondson, K. (2000). Assessing Science Understanding through Concept Maps. Assessing Science Understanding. J. Mintzes, J. Wandersee and J. Novak. San Diego, Academic Press: 19-40.

Edmondson, K. M. (1995). "Concept mapping for the development of medical curricula." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 32(7): 777-793.

Edmondson, K. M. and D. F. Smith (1996). Concept Mapping To Facilitate Veterinary Students' Understanding of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders. American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8- 12, 1996).
Abstract:
Concept maps have been used successfully in science and mathematics education in a variety of settings. This paper describes the application of the metacognitive tool, concept mapping, to the development of an integrated veterinary curriculum, to the development of case-based exercises for problem-based learning, and as a learning tool for students working individually or in small groups. Examples are drawn from courses developed for a new veterinary curriculum implemented in 1993. Special attention is paid to a course taught to 65 veterinary students in the spring of 1995 on fluid and electrolyte disorders. Concept maps were integral to the design and delivery of the course, and were included in the final examination. The use of concept maps to this extent was well received by students. The vast majority claimed that the concept maps greatly facilitated their understanding of the relevant pathophysiologic mechanisms contributing to an
acid/base disturbance or fluid disorder. Responses from the faculty involved with the course were also very positive. It is argued that concept maps can help make conceptual relationships explicit, identify errors and omissions, and reveal misconceptions in students' understanding. (Contains 1 table, 6 figures, and 40 references.) (Author/SLD)

Edmondson, K. M. (1994). "Concept maps and the development of cases for problem-based learning." Academic Medicine 69(2): 108-110.

Edmondson, K. and J. Novak (1993). "The interplay of scientific epistemological views, learning strategies, and attitudes of college students." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 30(6): 547-559.
Summarizes research that illustrates the important interplay between students' scientific epistemological views and their learning strategies. The authors address the problem of facilitating meaningful science learning as contrasted to rote memorization, which is practiced by many students and encouraged by instructional and evaluative practices. It is argued that when metacognitive tools are used to facilitate meaningful learning, positive consequences in learning of subject matter, attitudes toward science, and epistemological views can emerge. Positivistic epistemology is considered to be an enemy to encouraging meaningful learning and constructivist views of the nature of science and knowing.

Edwards, J. and K. Fraser (1983). "Concept maps as reflections of conceptual understanding." Research in Science Education 13: 19-26.

Eklund J, S. J, et al. (1999). NESTOR Navigator: A tool for the collaborative construction of knowledge through constructive navigation. In proceedings of Ausweb99, The Fifth Australian World Wide Web Conference. Southern Cross University Press, Lismore. p. 396-408.
This paper describes NESTOR NAVIGATOR, a graphical Web browser which supports collaborative learning (Zeiliger, Belisle & Cerratto, 1999 in press). NESTOR is based on the principle that an individual's path through an information space reflects their discourse context with the information, it allows them to personalise that space, and in effect, solve their own navigation problems. In a window to one side of the browser window, it dynamically builds a navigable overview map of the hyperspace as the user interacts with it. It distinguishes the type of node that the user is currently at and illustrates possible paths from that node. Users are able to annotate nodes with personal notes, and describe their preferred path through the information space, in other words, which path contains the most meaning for them. Users may export these descriptions as 'tours' and thus share their personal interactions with the information space with others. In terms of solving navigation problems, NESTOR's approach is to provide an interactive, stimulating environment where the learner's expertise is deployed, rather than drawing on knowledge held in some expert model as in a knowledge-based system. It encourages users to reflect on their interactions with an information space, to augment those interactions with annotations, to collaborate with others through the sharing of tours and annotated maps, and to apply their own methodologies to solve navigational problems. We overview the software, with particular emphasis on the principles of discourse theory on which it is based, and outline ways in which it is being integrated into teaching and learning contexts, and describe experiments that are being undertaken with it.

Elhelou, M.-W. A. (1997). "The Use of Concept Mapping in Learning Science Subjects by Arab Students." Educational Research 39(3): 311-317.
Abstract:
Male students in the Gaza Strip (n=30, median age 13) used concept mapping to generate propositional relationships among map concepts; 31 controls received lectures. Concept mapping resulted in significantly higher achievement. (SK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Elshout-Mohr, M., B. Van Hout-Wolters, et al. (1999). "Mapping Situations in Classroom and Research: Eight Types of Instructional-Learning Episodes." Learning and Instruction 9(1): 57-75.
Abstract:
One requirement of reflective conceptual change by teachers is the need to map classroom situations onto situations that are subjected to educational research. A classification of instructional-learning episodes is presented as an instrument to facilitate this mapping. Using the instrument in teacher training and educational research is discussed. (SLD)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Enger, S. K. (1996). "Concept Mapping: Visualizing Student Understanding."
Abstract:
A pilot study to investigate the use of concept mapping for assessment purposes was conducted during the spring of 1996. Thirteen teachers from a random sample of science teachers affiliated with the Iowa-Scope, Sequence, and Coordination Project and 12 other teachers affiliated with the project participated in the concept mapping study. Student concept maps were scored by the participating teachers using the "Expert Science Teaching Educational Evaluation Model (ESTEEM) Concept Mapping Scoring Rubric." Even with attempts to standardize implementation of the concept mapping procedures, teachers had a tendency to divert from the pre- established guidelines. Concept mapping can be used for a diverse set of topics and issues and can be used across grade levels. Even with the use of a rubric, scoring concept maps is a subjective process. In addition to quantitative analyses of concept maps, qualitative inspection can provide evidence of misconceptions and
growth in student understanding. Since concept maps are a personal construction of understanding, a concept map would seem to warrant a personal, in-depth look. Numerous variables such as skill level with concept mapping, concept difficulty, different classrooms, and scoring of the maps are factors that make interpretation of data problematic. An appendix presents a figure illustrating the use of concept maps in student assessment. (Contains one figure, one appendix figure, one table, and six references.) (Author/SLD)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Tuscaloosa, AL, November 6-8, 1996).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Erduran, S. (1996). Analysis of Physical Science Textbooks for Conceptual Frameworks on Acids, Bases and Neutralization: Implications for Students' Conceptual Understanding.
Abstract:
Eight physical science textbooks were analyzed for coverage on acids, bases, and neutralization. At the level of the text, clarity and coherence of statements were investigated. The conceptual framework for this topic was represented in a concept map which was used as a coding tool for tracing concepts and links present in textbooks. Cognitive demands placed by the textbooks on the reader were considered. Results indicated that although textbooks are readable, they fail in making explicit connections to important, underlying themes such as chemical change and physical properties. Cognitive demands placed on the reader include concurrent spatial and proportional reasoning. Furthermore, results suggest that conceptual frameworks which the students are exposed to in textbooks might be deficient not only in terms of content but also in terms of how content is weaved into a broader framework. (Contains 11 figures, 3 tables, and 58 references.) (Author)

Erickson, H. L. (2001). Stirring the Head, Heart, and Soul: Redefining Curriculum and Instruction. Second Edition., If not avail. in your library or through ILL, for sale from:
Corwin Press, Inc., 2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320-2218 (paperback: ISBN-0-8039-6885-X, $32.95). Tel: 805-499-9734; Fax: 800-4-1-SCHOOL; e-mail: order@corwinpress.com; Web site: http://www.corwinpress.com.
Abstract:
This work reviews curricular designs, providing educators a practical structure for making curricular decisions. Chapter 1, "Making Change in a Changing World," argues that an appreciation of the role of pressure groups and partnerships is essential to a quality education plan. Chapter 2, "Concept-Based Curriculum," explores the history of the concept-based curriculum, and offers numerous evaluative tools. Chapter 3, "State Academic Standards and Local Curriculum Frameworks," explains the importance of adopting a tripartite model of curriculum design. Chapter 4, "Designing Interdisciplinary, Integrated Curricula," presents a detailed model for content integration. Chapter 5, "Concept-Based Units: Samples and Questions," provides diagrams, guiding questions, and a review of relevant models. Chapter 6, "Assessing and Reporting Student Progress," reviews the form and function of alternative assessment tools. Chapter 7, "Concept-Based
Instruction," suggests instructional strategies and activities relating to concepts, principles, and transferable ideas. Chapter 8, "Stirring the Head, Heart, and Soul: Creating a Love of Learning," stresses the importance of teacher-student engagement. (Contains a glossary, 56 references, and a 10-page index.) (TEJ)


Publication type:
Books (010); Guides-Information analysis (070)

Ertmer, P. and T. Newby (1996). "The expert learner: Strategic, self-regulated and reflective." Instructional Science 24: 1-24.
strategic & self-regulated & reflective model of metacognitive knowledge & regulatory processes that underlie & support expert learning
Abstract:
Explains and illustrates the concept of the expert learner as a strategic, self regulated, and reflective learner. The article describes how expert learners approach novel learning tasks; how metacognition facilitates the strategic performance of expert learners; and how reflection provides the critical link between the knowledge and control of the learning process. A model of expert learning is presented to illustrate how learners' metacognitive knowledge of cognitive, motivational, and environmental strategies is translated into regulatory control of the learning process through ongoing reflective thinking. The implications that the concept of expert learning has for instructional practices is also discussed.

Esiobu, G. and K. Soyibo (1995). "Effects of concept and vee mapping under three learning modes on students' cognitive achievement in ecology and genetics." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 32(9): 971-995.
concept & vee mapping heuristics in individualistic whole vs cooperative with vs without competitive learning conditions, achievement in ecology & genetics, 10th graders, Nigeria
Abstract:
Examined the efficacy of concept and vee mapping heuristics under cooperative, cooperative-competitive (CP-CM), and individualistic whole (IW) class learning conditions on students' achievement in ecology and genetics. 406 10th graders and 402 controls were pretested on biology achievement tests and 2 other performance tests of ecology and genetics, and categorized into high, average and low ability groups (mean age 15 yrs). Ss were trained in the use of mappings, and randomly assigned to 9 experimental classes. 18 student-teachers, who had been exposed to the 2 experimental techniques, scored the concept and vee maps used by the Ss. Results show that Ss taught with concept and vee mappings under all 3 learning conditions, achieved significantly better, than the controls. Ss in the CP-CM conditions achieved significantly better than the other groups.

Esnault, L. and R. Zeiliger (2000). Navigating the Web : From Information to Knowledge,
workshop
. IRMA 2000 International Conference, Anchorage, USA.

Evans, D., H. Delugach, et al. (2001). Application of conceptual graph structures in the design of an adaptive system: An initial concept and exploration. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 45th Annual Meeting.

Evans, A. W., F. Jentsch, et al. (2001). Mental Model Assessments: Is there convergence among different methods. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 45th Annual Meeting.

Evans, A. W., J. M. Hitt, et al. (2001). Reliability of knowledge elicitation methods. Poster presented at the American Psychological Association Division 21 Mid-year Meeting, Washington DC.

Falkenheimer, B., K. D. Forbus, et al. (1990). "The structure-mapping engine: Algorithm and examples." Artificial Intelligence 41: 1-63.

Feifer, R. and L. Allender (1994). " It's Not How Multi the Media, It's How the Media Is Used."
Multimedia educational software is often a glitzy version of old technology. Some educational software has become better as developers began to ask, "In what ways can the computer facilitate learning, that were not possible before?" One answer to this question is: provide a simulated environment for the learner to interact with. For multimedia to have an impact on learning, a similar question must be asked: "In what ways can multimedia facilitate learning, that were not possible before?" One answer is the Case-Based Learn-by-doing Environments (CaBLE). The computer provides a simulated environment that allows the student to learn a task by doing a task. Multimedia stories and information help connect what the learner is doing in the simulated world with events in the real world. The CaBLE tutor utilizes the following components: task simulator; interface; library of failures which can occur in the domain; library of learner mistakes; learner state map;
network of declarative knowledge; and library of stories. (Contains 21 references.) (Author)


Notes:
In: Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 1994. Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 94--World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 25-30, 1994); see IR 017 359.


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Feldman, S. (2000). "The Answer Machine." Searcher 8(1): 58-61,64-74,76-78.

Abstract:
Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering; visualization; and speech recognition. (LRW)

Feldman, S. (2000). "Meaning-based Search Tools: Find What I Mean, Not What I Say." Online 24(3): p49-50,52-56.
Abstract:
Discussion of information handling tools focuses on natural language processing and linguistically-based techniques that help improve retrieval performance. Topics include difficulties in information retrieval, including poor questions and ambiguous words; phrase detection; disambiguation; automatic categorization; entity extraction; concept mapping; and future possibilities; including ecommerce applications and good speech recognition. (LRW)


Notes:
Special Web Search Section.


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Feltovich, P. J., R. R. Spiro, et al. (1993). Learning, teaching and testing for complex conceptual understanding. Test theory for a new generation of tests. N. Fredericksen, R. Mislevy and I. Bejar. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 187-217.

Fenker, R. (1975). "The organization of conceptual materials: a methodology for measuring ideal and actual cognitive structures." Instructional Science 4: 33-57.
organization of conceptual materials & measurement & evaluation
of comprehension of concepts using cognitive maps
Abstract: Describes the teaching-learning process in terms of a simple
communication model with 4 components: the sender, the encoding and decoding
structures, and the destination. Within this context a method is proposed and
illustrated for evaluating a student's understanding of the system of
concepts underlying the topic areas in an elementary statistics and
measurement course. The method, multidimensional scaling, involves
determining the students' and instructor's cognitive maps for the various
topics. (A cognitive map represents a hypothetical cognitive structure of a
student or instructor which characterizes his perceived organization of the
concepts in a topic area.) These individual cognitive maps were compared to
the optimal organization or formal structure, as a basis for assessing the
students' understanding of the material. The present research demonstrated
that (a) With the help of experts it is possible to define the formal
structure for the concepts in a topic area; (b) It is possible to measure, in
a classroom setting, the cognitive maps that both students and instructors
have for a topic area; and (c) By comparing students' cognitive maps to the
instructor's cognitive map or to the formal structure, the student's
understanding of the system of concepts defining the topic area can be
evaluated. (34 ref)

Fentem, A., A. Dumas, et al. (1998). "Evolving spatial representations to support innovation and the communication of strategic knowledge." Knowledge-Based Sysytems 11: 417-428.
Abstract
Computer-based representations of strategic knowledge in the form of maps can be used by specialists from different fields to maintain the coherence of their work, whilst at the same time providing scope for individual creativity. In collaboration with manufacturing organisations, we are evolving tools and techniques to facilitate the elicitation and mapping of their strategic knowledge. The tools that we are developing can be used to communicate this knowledge across distributed teams of engineers, designers, and brand managers. The tools integrate and maintain the coherence of activity among these groups, and also facilitate the apprehension of new knowledge. We describe how this can be achieved using a mixture of spatial hypertext and reconfigurable information spaces. These tools provide scope for gradually building context, while simultaneously enabling exploration of detailed knowledge.

Author Keywords: Collective creativity; Maps; Product strategy

Ferry, B., J. Hedberg, et al. (1998). "How Do Preservice Teachers Use Concept Maps To Organize Their Curriculum Content Knowledge?" Journal of Interactive Learning Research 9(1): 83-104.
Abstract:
Reports on preservice teachers' use of a concept-mapping tool to create/modify concept maps about science- related elementary curriculum-content knowledge. Data from interviews, journals, and analysis of the concept maps showed how the preservice teachers used the tool to construct their curriculum-content knowledge in the form of more powerful integrated patterns. The process enhanced their skills in planning instruction. (Author/AEF)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Ferry, B. (1996). "Probing Understanding: The Use of a Computer-Based Tool To Help Preservice Teachers Map Concepts." Journal of Science Teacher Education 7(4): 283-293.
Abstract:
Describes an innovation designed to capitalize on certain benefits of concept maps. Uses computer software with preservice teachers to enable them to construct concept maps that represent their own subject matter knowledge. Contains 21 references. (DDR)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Fischer, F., J. Bruhn, et al. (2002). "Fostering collaborative knowledge construction with visualization tools." Learning and Instruction 12: 213-232.
Abstract (from Science Direct)
This study investigates to what extent collaborative knowledge construction can be fostered by providing students with visualization tools as structural support. Students (32) of Educational Psychology took part in the study. The students were subdivided into dyads and asked to solve a case problem of their learning domain under one of two conditions: (1) with content-specific visualization; (2) with content-unspecific visualization. Results show that by being provided with a content-specific visualization tool, both the process and the outcome of the cooperative effort improved. More specifically, dyads under that condition referred to more adequate concepts, risked more conflicts, and were more successful in integrating prior knowledge into the collaborative solution. Moreover, those learning partners had a more similar individual learning outcome.

Fisher, S. "A better way to search the web." Training.

Fisher, K., J. Wandersee, et al. (2000). Enhancing cognitive skills for meaningful understanding of domain specific knowledge. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington DC.

Fisher, K. M., J. H. Wandersee, et al. (in press). Mapping Biology Knowledge. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Fisher, F., J. Bruhn, et al. (1999). "Mapping-Enhanced Collaborative Knowledge Construction."
Abstract:
A method to facilitate collaborative learning in complex learning environments was developed and evaluated. Sixteen college students of educational science were given the CoStructure-Tool, a task-specific computer- based tool developed on the basis of concept mapping techniques to support the processes of knowledge construction in collaborative learning. The tool includes concept cards for case information and cards for theoretical concepts, with a screen divided into empirical and theoretical planes. Sixteen other students collaborated without this support in a control condition. Students in both conditions had to work on complex cases in the domain of education. The use of the mapping tool had substantial effects on collaborative knowledge construction. Dyads in this group produced more on-task contributions and used more theoretical concepts. Use of the mapping tool also facilitated transfer of prior knowledge, but no differences were found
in the use of theoretical concepts provided in the learning environment. The CoStructure-Tool proved to be a method for facilitating cooperation that was effective in supporting specific processes and in improving the transfer of prior knowledge. (Contains eight references.) (SLD)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 19-23, 1999).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Fisher, K. M. (1990). "Semantic Networking: The New Kid on the Block." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 1001-1018.

Fisher, K. M. SemNet.

Fisher, K. M. (2000). SemNet Software as an Assessment Tool. Assessing Science Understanding: 197-221.

Flores-Méndez, R. A. "Designing a concept mapping system user interface."
course materials
what do people do when they make concept maps
how to design interface
(demonstration study)

Flores-Méndez, R. A. (1996). "DISTRIBUTED CONCEPT MAPPING COLLABORATION USING JAVA."

Flores-Méndez, R. A. (1997). Java Concept Maps for the Learning Web. ED-MEDIA.

Flores-Méndez, R. A., P. van Leeuwen, et al. (1998). "Modeling Expertise Using KADS and MODEL-ECS."
graph-based executable modelling language
transform conceptual model into design model, then knowledge-based system (based on expert)

Fong, E. L. S. F. (1999). Concept mapping in the learning of the law of real property. HERDSA Annual International Conference, Melbourne.

Forbus, K. D., R. W. Ferguson, et al. (1994). Incremental structure-mapping. Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Ford, K. M., J. W. Coffey, et al. (1996). "Diagnosis and explanation by a nuclear cardiology expert system." International Journal of Expert Systems 9: 499-506.

Ford, K. M., A. Cañas, et al. (1991). "ICONKAT: An integrated constructivist knowledge acquisition tool." Knowledge Acquisition 3: 215-236.

Ford, N. (2000). "Improving the "Darkness to Light" Ratio in User-Related Information Retrieval Research." Journal of Documentation 56(6): 624-643.
Abstract:
Discusses how to improve research and design more effective information retrieval systems. Topics include human-system interaction; knowledge integration; pluralistic research approaches; enhanced access to research data; more multidisciplinary integrative devices and conceptual mappings; establishing a greater mass of published research findings to support an evidence-based knowledge map; and epistemological issues. (Contains 62 references.) (LRW)

Ford, K. M. and J. M. Bradshaw, Eds. (1993). Knowledge acquisition as modeling. New York, Wiley.

Ford, K. M., A. J. Cañas, et al. (1993). Participatory Explanation. Sixth Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Symposium, Ft. Lauderadale, FL.

Fowler, R., B. Wilson, et al. (1992). "Information Navigator: An information system using associative networks for dispay and retrieval."

Francisco, J. S., G. Nicoll, et al. (1998). " Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom." Journal of Chemical Education 75(2): 210-213.
Abstract:
Four different methods of teaching--cooperative learning, class discussions, concept maps, and lectures--were integrated into a freshman-level general chemistry course to compare students' levels of participation. Findings support the idea that multiple modes of learning foster the metacognitive skills necessary for mastering general chemistry. Different approaches reinforce the concepts and aid in mastery of the material. (PVD)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Fraser, K. and J. D. Novak (1998). "Managing the empowerment of employees to address issues of inter-employee cooperation, communication, and work redesign." The Learning Organization 5(2): 109-119.

Gahren, F. (2000). "Concept Maps for the 21st Century." Journal of Cooperation & Collaboration in College Teaching 10(1): 13-20.
Abstract:
Describes four types of concept maps (slash recall, linear, radial, pictorial) created and used by students at the U.S. Air Force Academy to improve comprehension and recall of reading assignments. Provides student examples of each type of map, which are often created on computers. (EV)


Publication type:
Guides-Non-classroom use (053); Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Gaines, B. and M. Shaw (1995). Collaboration through concept maps. Proceedings of CSCL95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning, Bloomington., Bloomington, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Abstract: Concept maps have been used in education, policy studies and the philosophy of science to provide a visual representation of knowledge structures and argument forms. They provide a complementary alternative to natural language as a means of communicating knowledge. In many disciplines various forms of concept map are already used as formal knowledge representation systems, for example: semantic networks in artificial intelligence, bond graphs in mechanical and electrical engineering, Petri nets in communications, and category graphs in mathematics. This paper describes the design and applications of groupware concept mapping tools designed to support collaboration in dispersed learning communities.

Gaines, B. R. and M. L. G. Shaw (1989). Comparing the conceptual systems of experts. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, San Mateo, CA, Morgan Kaufman.

Gaines, B. and M. Shaw (1995). "Concept maps as hypermedia components." International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 43(3): 323-361.

Gaines, B. and M. Shaw (1996). "Implementing the Learning Web."

Gaines, B. and M. Shaw "Using knowledge acquisition and representation tools to support scientific communities."

Gaines, B. R. and M. L. G. Shaw (1994). Using Knowledge Acquisition and Representation Tools to Support Scientific Communities. 12th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI).

Gaines, B. and M. Shaw (1995). WebMap: Concept mapping on the web. Proceedings of WWW4: Fourth International World Wide Web Conference, Boston.

Gibson, J. and G. Bonath (1997). Experts' and Novices' Mental Models of an Online Catalog. Psychonomics.

Gilman, E. and D. Gillan (2001). Metaphors as tools for restructuring knowledge: Metaphor-based learning about computer systems. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 45th Annual Meeting.

Glaser, R. (2000). Assessing Active Knowledge. Los Angeles, CA, CRESST: 1-12.

Glaser, R. and M. T. H. Chi (1988). Overview. The nature of expertise. M. T. H. Chi, R. Glaser and M. J. Farr Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum: xv-xxviii.

Goldsmith, T. E. and D. M. Davenport (1990). Assessing the structural similarity of graphs. Pathfinder Associative Networks. R. Schaneveldt. Norwood, NJ, Ablex.

Gomes, M. E., S. Lind, et al. (1993). A human factors evaluation using tools for automated knowledge engineering. Proceedings of the IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, OH.

Gomez, A., A. Moreno, et al. (2000). "Knowledge maps: an essential technique for conceptualisation."

Gomez, R. and L. D. Housner (1992). "Pedagogical Knowledge Structures in Prospective Teachers."
Abstract:
This exploratory study examined the structure of declarative knowledge about pedagogy housed in the memory of an experienced teacher educator, and it sought to determine the teacher educator's influence on the development of declarative knowledge structures in undergraduate students enrolled in three sections of a physical education teaching methods course. The Pathfinder scaling algorithm, an associative networking technique, was used to map the pedagogical knowledge structures of the teacher educator and undergraduate students before and following participation in the course. Comparison of students' knowledge of key pedagogical concepts with the instructor's indicated that students' knowledge was more coherent and corresponded more closely to the instructor's following the courses; final measures of correspondence and coherence were significantly associated with course performance. Also, university grade point average (GPA) was highly related to course performance variables!
while American College Test (ACT) scores were not. A
follow-up of a subset of students indicated that key pedagogical concepts were retained over a six-month period of time. However, performance on a semantic classification task of pedagogical concepts provided little evidence that students most highly correspondent with the instructor organized knowledge at a more semantic level than students who were less correspondent. (Contains 58 references.) (LL)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Psychological Association (38th, Austin, TX, April 16- 18, 1992).


Publication type:
Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Gonzales, F. and J. D. Novak (1993). Aprendizaje significativo technicas y apliciones. Madrid, Argentina, Editorial Cincels.A.

Gonzales, F., C. Moron, et al. (2001). Errors Conceptuales: Diagnosis, Tratamiento y Reflexiones. Pamplona, Ediciones Eunate.

Gonzalez, F. M. (1997). "Evidence of Rote Learning of Science by Spanish University Students." School Science and Mathematics 97(8): 419-428.
Abstract:
Tests for alternative conceptions of students enrolled in a second course of sciences at the Teacher Training School in Pamplona, Spain of a geological topic (silicates) that had been studied at previous educational levels. Students' concept maps showed the existence of a large number of alternative conceptions. Contains 26 references. (Author/ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Good, R., J. Novak, et al., Eds. (1990). Journal of Research in Science Teaching: Special Issue: Perspectives on Concept Mapping.

Gooding, D. (1990). "Mapping Experiment as a Learning Process: How the First Electromagnetic Motor Was Invented." Science, Technology, & Human Values 15(2): 165-2-1.
Abstract:
Introduced is a notation to map out an experiment as an active process in a real-world environment and display the human aspect written out of most narratives. Comparing maps of accounts can show how knowledge- construction depends on narrative reconstruction. Emphasized are nonverbal and procedural aspects of discovery and invention. (KR)


Notes:
Journal availability: See SE 547 389.

Goodson, L. A. (2000). Teaching and Learning Strategies for Complex Thinking Skills. National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (23rd, Denver, CO, October 25-28, 2000). Volumes 1- 2;.
Abstract:
This paper proposes a model for teaching and learning complex thinking skills developed from a synthesis of theories and research. The model functions like a concept map or a graphic organizer with five major components, each discussed in this paper: (1) presence of complex authentic life situations within a context; (2) activation and execution of complex thinking skills; (3) development of interactive prerequisites of content, simple thinking skills, and dispositions and habits; (4) inclusion of connecting networks and operations (linkages, schemata, and scaffolding) to bridge complex thinking skills with interactive prerequisites; and (5) targeted teaching and learning strategies. Terms associated with thinking and learning guided the manual and electronic search through the Internet and online library files. (Contains 70 references.) (Author/AEF)


Notes:
In: Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (23rd, Denver, CO, October 25-28, 2000). Volumes 1- 2; see IR 020 712.


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Gordon, S. E., K. A. Schmierer, et al. (1993). "Conceptual graph analysis: Knowledge acquisition for instructional systems design." Human Factors 35: 459-481.

Gordon, J. L. (2000). "Creating knowledge maps by exploiting dependent relationships." Knowledge-Based Sysytems 13: 71-79.

Gordon, S. E. (1992). Implications of cognitive theory for knowledge acquisition. The psychology of expertise: Cognitive research and empirical AI. R. R. Hoffman. New York, Springer Verlag: 99-120.

Gordon, S. E. and R. T. Gill (1989). "Question Probes: A structured method for eliciting declarative knowledge."

Gordon, S. E. and R. T. Gill (1989). "Question probes: A structured method for eliciting declarative knowledge." AI Applications in Natural Resource Management 3: 13-20.

Graesser, A. C. and S. E. Gordon (1991). Question answering and the organization of world knowledge. Essays in honor of George Mandler. G. Craik, A. Ortony and W. Kessen. Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum: 227-243.

Gravett, S. J. and E. Swart (1997). "Concept Mapping: A Tool for Promoting and Assessing Conceptual Change." South African Journal of Higher Education 11(2): 122-126.
Abstract:
Describes the use of concept mapping as a teaching technique in a graduate-level educational psychology course. Examines constructivist learning as a theoretical base for instruction, defines concept mapping, and outlines the classroom technique used. Asserts that concept maps guide, promote, and assist in knowledge construction as a metacognitive strategy, and later help monitor conceptual change and identify persisting misconceptions. (Author/MSE)

Gray, D. "Incomplete Software (KM) list with links (some inactive)."

Greenburg, S. (in press (1999)). Real Time Distributed Collaboration. Encyclopedia of Distributed Computing. P. Dasgupta and J. Urban, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Griffin, R. E., Ed. and A. Others (1997). "VisionQuest: Journeys toward Visual Literacy. Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (28th, Cheyenne, Wyoming, October, 1996)."
Abstract:
This document contains 59 selected papers from the 1996 International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA) conference. Topics include: learning to think visually; information design via the Internet; a program for inner-city at-risk children; dubbing versus subtitling television programs; connecting advertisements and classroom reading through visual literacy; tools for humanizing visual symbols; a review of a video on advertising and obsession with thinness; hypermedia and the fundamentals of electronic literacy; elementary students' perceptions of visuals on the World Wide Web; stereotypes in film; teachers' perceptions of instructional design; visual learning activities; tri-coding of information; diversity in Cyborg images; concept mapping; the meaning of color in trademarks; visual literacy in elementary education; visual learning via computer-based simulations; adapting a paper-and-pencil test to the computer; representational strategies
in a documentary about racial relations; studying scientific data through an aesthetic point of view; the role of the media in African American self-hatred; the need for visual literacy in higher education; imagery and synectics for modeling poetry writing; virtual courses; visual icons in myth; the development and demise of 8 millimeter film loops; women's history in visual and audiovisual education; student-developed visual productions; a cartographic interpretation of visual literacy; enabling learners through technology; a graphics systems approach in industry; the philosophy of representation; student nurses' perceptions of hospital staff modelling behaviors; deconstructing visual images of indigenous people; children's spatial visual thinking in a hypermedia environment; creating critical thinkers; perception in physics; using graphics for integrated planning; revisioning in storytelling; a local history preservation project; visual
learning in biology; imagery, concept formation and creativity; visual themes in gravestones; visual design principles in World Wide Web construction; digital camera editing; digital cinema principles and techniques for multimedia development; culture reflected in tombstones; challenges for hypermedia designers; visual literacy in Web Page creation; the potential of dynamic computer presentations; technology mass media, society and gender; obstructive interactive television designs; gender equity online; a study of intertextuality in television programming; children's understanding of visuals in television interviews; children's attention in television viewing; instructional design process models; and international use of the electronic presentation. (AEF)

Gruhn, W. (1995-1996). "Maps and Paths in Music Learning--Building up Mental Representations: A Connectionist Approach." Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education 127: 88-98.
Abstract:
Discusses a connectionist, or neural network, model of learning and representation. Argues that the less musical representations are developed, the more listeners refer to nonmusical associations to understand music. Suggests that music education should begin by providing students with tools to deal with music based on experiences already familiar to them. (DSK)


Notes:
Special issue. Version of paper presented at the 15th International Society for Music Education Research Seminar held in Miami, Florida, on July 9-15, 1994.


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Gualtieri, J., W. Elm, et al. (2001). Analysis with a purpose: Narrowing the gap with a pragmatic approach. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting.

Guastello, E. F., T. M. Beasley, et al. (2000). "Concept Mapping Effects on Science Content Comprehension of Low-Achieving Inner-City Seventh Graders." Remedial and Special Education 21(6): 356-365.
Abstract:
Low-achieving seventh-grade students were assigned to two science intervention groups, a read-and-discuss teacher-directed method group and a group in which a model of concept mapping that connected major and minor concepts followed the lesson. Results indicate that using graphic representations was more effective than the traditional approach. (Contains references.) (CR)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Gubrud, A. and J. Novak (1973). "Learning achievement and the efficiency of learning the concept of vector addition at three different grade levels." Science Education 57(2): 179-191.

Guimaraes, N., T. Chambel, et al. (2000). "From cognitive maps to hypervideo: Supporting flexible and rich learner-centered environments." Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning 2(3).

Hahn, J. and J. KIm Why are representations (sometimes) more effective?

Hall, R. and E. L. Stocks (1998).

Hall, R. and A. O'Donnell (1996). "Cognitive and affective outcomes of learning from knowledge maps." Contemporary Educational Psychology 94-101.

Hall, R. and M. Sidio-Hall (1994). "The effect of color enhancement on knowledge map processing." Journal of Experimental Education 62(3): 209-217.
84 college students studied a 1,500-word text passage on the autonomic nervous system in the form of a knowledge map or traditional text. Within each of these groups, half of the Ss studied color-enhanced (CE) material and half studied black-and-white (BW) materials. Although those in the map group recalled more than did their traditional text counterparts for both CE and BW materials, the effect was not significant. This finding, which is inconsistent with previous research, may have been due to subject matter or structural differences in the maps or to the overwhelming effect of color enhancement. Ss who studied CE materials recalled significantly more than those who studied BW materials across both map and traditional text groups. Thus, it appears that color enhancement can be a powerful tool for increasing acquisition of textual information presented via a knowledge map or a more traditional format.

Hall, R., M. Hall, et al. (1999). "The effects of graphical postorganization strategies on learning from knowledge maps." Journal of Experimental Education 67(2): 101-112.
Key phrase: graphical postorganizational strategies, learning from knowledge
maps & recall, college students
Abstract: The effects of postorganization activities on the acquisition of
information presented in a knowledge-map format were assessed. In the 1st
experiment, 90 college students studied biology subject matter in a
knowledge-map format for 30 min. During the next 15 min, half of the
participants summarized the information using the structure of the map
(without any text included) as an aid (structure group); the other half
continued studying the map (control group). The structure group recalled
significantly more information than the control group; that effect was
particularly pronounced with recall of superordinate propositions. In Exp 2,
the recall of the structure group, who studied in the same manner as in Exp
1, was compared with that of the map group, who summarized using the
knowledge map as an aid, and the no-cue group, who summarized without any
type of aid. The map and structure groups recalled significantly more
superordinate propositions than the no-cue group. The 3 groups did not differ
significantly with respect to subordinate propositions. The results suggest
that postorganization activities that emphasize spatial encoding enhance the
effectiveness of knowledge maps, especially with respect to superordinate
concepts.

Hall, R. and E. Stocks (1998). Guided Surfing: A Multimethod Assessment of a Layered Hypermap WWW Interface. WebNet98: World Conference on the WWW and Internet.

Hall, R. (1997, October). Guided Surfing: Development and Assessment of a World Wide Web Interface for an Undergraduate Psychology Class. North American Web Developers Conference.

Hall, R. (1999). Guided surfing: Development of a world wide web interface for teaching undergraduate psychology.

Hall, R. H. and R. Blair (1993). "Knowledge maps and spatial-verbal processing." Perceptual and Motor Skills 77: 611-621.
Examined knowledge maps, a particular type of spatial-textual display. 37 college students were divided into 2 groups: map and text. Both groups studied a passage of information on the autonomic nervous system and completed recall tests after a 5-min overview, after studying for 30 min, and 2 days after the completion of studying. Ss in the map group studied the information in the form of knowledge maps, while those in the text group studied traditional text. Recall results indicate that retention of details did not decay from initial to delayed recall, while the retention of main ideas did. The main idea^detail relationship was mediated by the temporal nature of recall and experimental group. Main ideas and details were strongly related initially but not on subsequent recall for the map group, while just the opposite was the case for the text group.

Hall, R., D. Dansereau, et al. (1992). "Knowledge maps and the presentation of related information domains." Journal of Experimental Education 61(1): 5-18.
comparative vs sequential text vs knowledge map, information
acquisition & attitudes toward material & study skills, college students
Abstract: Assessed the relative effectiveness of multiple-relationship
knowledge maps (KMs) and traditional text for the presentation of related
information domains. 92 university students read 2 types of passages of text
presented in either a comparative text, sequential text, comparative map, or
sequential map format. Ss then completed questionnaires about their attitudes
toward the 2 passages, their study skills, and their study routes. Ss also
completed vocabulary and free-recall tests on the information read. KMs were
superior to traditional text in acquisition and affect associated with
studying for 1 type of material. Ss in the map groups reported gaining more
knowledge about their information processing and studying strategies that
would help them in future learning than did Ss in text groups. Results were
not replicated for the 2nd type of material studied.

Hall, R., J. Balestra, et al. (2000). A navigational analysis of linear and non-linear hypermedia interfaces. American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Hall, R. H. and A. Others (1990). "Student- versus Expert-Generated Knowledge Maps: Postorganization, Initial Acquisition, and Transfer."
Abstract:
The major purpose of the present experiment was to assess the impact of student-generated and expert-generated knowledge maps on the effectiveness of post-organizer construction, initial acquisition, and transfer. Sixty students at the University of Missouri-Rolla were included in this study. Participants were required to study a passage and create a summary of the material in one of three conditions. Those in the text-map group (TM) and those in the text-text group (TT) studied a passage in the form of traditional text, while those in the map-text group (MT) studied the passage in the form of a knowledge map. Those in groups TT and MT created a summary in the form of traditional text, while those in group TM created a summary in the form of a knowledge map. Following the summary, all groups studied a second knowledge map that described psychological research designs. Students completed recall tests over both passages 2 days later. Results indicate that students in
all groups performed better on the summary (post-organizer) than on either recall test, and recalled significantly more information from the text passage than from the experimental design passage. TT subjects performed better than did the other groups on post-organizer accuracy, while the other two groups recalled more of the information in the transfer passage. Post-organizer accuracy proved to be a significant predictor of recall in MT subjects, while post-organizer accuracy and recall were largely unrelated for the other groups. A 28-item list of references, two data tables, and a figure providing part of a knowledge map are included. (Author/TJH)

Hall, R. (1998). A theory-driven model for the web-enhanced educational psychology class. AERA.

Hameed, A., D. Sleeman, et al. (2002). "Detecting mismatches among experts' ontologies acquired through knowledge elicitation." Knowledge-Based Systems 15: 265-273.

Hammond, N. (1994). "Auto-monitoring: theoretical touchstone or circular catchall." ALT-J 2(1): 49-50.

Hammond, N. (1996). "Concept mapping as directed reflection."

Harnisch, D., T. Sato, et al. (1994). Concept mapping approach and its applications in instruction and assessment. AERA, NCME,, New Orleans.

Hartley, R. and J. Barnden (1997). "Semantic networks: Visualizations of knowledge." Trends in Cognitive Science 1(5): 169-175.

Hashweh, M. Z. (1986). "Effects of Subject-Matter Knowledge in the Teaching of Biology and Physics."
Abstract:
An analysis of science teacher's knowledge of specific biology and physics topics and the effects of this knowledge on their planning for instruction and on simulated teaching are discussed in this report. Six experienced secondary school teachers participated in the study. Each teacher's knowledge of a biology topic and a physics topic was assessed using summary free recall, concept-map line labeling, and sorting tasks. The knowledge varied on four dimensions: (1) knowledge of topic; (2) knowledge of other discipline concepts, principles, and topics; (3) knowledge of conceptual schemes; and (4) knowledge of approaches or ways of connecting the topic to other topics in the discipline. The study results suggested that prior teacher knowledge of subject matter contributed to the transformation of the written curriculum into an enactive curriculum. Appendices include the physics and biology knowledge schemata. (ML)

Haycock, K. (1997). " What Works: Integrated Information Skills Instruction." Emergency Librarian 25(2): 29.
Abstract:
Reviews research findings that indicate students learn more and produce better research products following planned, integrated information skills instruction by the teacher and teacher-librarian together. Topics include the search process, search strategies, concept mapping, integrated resource-based instruction, and the need for formal planning. (LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Information analysis (070); Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Hecht, J. B. and A. Others (1993). "Coding Responses to Open-Ended Survey Items Using a Software-Driven Conceptual Mapping Scheme."
Abstract:
A method of qualitative data analysis that used computer software as a tool to help organize and analyze open- ended survey responses was examined. Reasons for using open-ended, as opposed to closed-ended questionnaire items, are discussed, as well as the construction of open-ended questions and response analysis. Because the method is based on grounded theory, it supports the researcher's role of building a conceptual map and coding verbatim responses. The sample for this research consisted of students at three suburban high schools and their parents who were part of an experimental project that required open-ended surveys as measures of attitude changes. Of the 243 student-parent pairs surveyed in Chicago (Illinois), 97 percent returned the first survey, and 92 percent the second. The computer-assisted technique allowed the researcher to keep track of large amounts of data, concepts, and conceptual codes, freeing time and energy for data interpretation
instead of maintenance. One table presents open-ended survey items from the study. Appendix A is the response analysis conceptual map, and Appendix B lists student and parent responses to both surveys. (SLD)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, GA, April 12- 16, 1993).


Publication type:
Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Heinze-Fry, J. and J. Novak (1990). "Concept mapping brings long-term movement toward meaningful learning." Science Education 74(4): 461-472.
concept mapping, meaningful learning, autotutorial college biology students
Abstract:
Investigated the use of concept mapping (CM) as a tool to enhance meaningful learning (ML) in college autotutorial biology students over a 3-instructional unit exposure. 20 students were introduced to CM, and 20 students served as controls. CM appeared to move students slowly toward more meaningful learning. Although this short exposure to mapping, with comparatively small groups, resulted in no statistically significant differences between mappers and controls in measures of initial learning, retention, and learning efficiency, all differences favored the mappers. CM interacted with Scholastic Aptitude Test scores. CM appeared to enhance clarity of learning as supported by 2 error analyses and student claims. CM appeared to enhance integration and retention of knowledge as supported by analysis of cross links, a comparison of student maps with initial and post interviews, and student claims.

Henderson, L. and A. Others (1994). "Interactive Multimedia, Concept Mapping, and Cultural Context."
Abstract:
Concept maps drawn by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tertiary off-campus students were examined to determine the effectiveness of interactive multimedia as an instructional medium for teaching and learning in a multiple cultural context that integrates the requirements of academic culture and aspects of the students' cultures. Interactive multimedia in the Remote Area Teacher Education Program (RATEP), "Australian Minorities Today in World Perspective," includes both lecturer and student constructed concept maps. Concept maps are used as an advance organizer, as question-answer-feedback interactions that interrogate how well the students understand presented concepts, and as summaries representing a selective synopsis. Twenty-one RATEP students were asked to construct on paper their own map on the concept of "culture." The quality of the student- generated concept maps was evaluated in terms of hierarchical architecture, progressive differentiation, and
integrative reconciliation via labeling and directionality of the inter- and intra-level linkages of the relational arcs. Results indicate that concept mapping through interactive multimedia proved an effective meta-learning strategy. Students produced maps at a level of specificity greater than some of those experienced in the actual interactive multimedia courseware. Concept mapping through interactive multimedia is seen as a tool of empowerment in cross-cultural learning. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/MAS)


Notes:
In: Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 1994. Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 94--World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 25-30, 1994); see IR 017 359.

Herl, H., E. Baker, et al. (1996). "Construct validation of an approach to modelling cognitive structure of U.S. history knowledge." Journal of Educational Research 89(4): 206-218.
scoring student concept maps by comparison to experts' maps, cognitive structure of history knowledge, 11th graders
Abstract:
Examined the technical characteristics of a method for scoring student concept maps by comparing the quality of 301 11th graders' maps with expert maps. Results show that experts' concept maps could be used to score students' concept maps reliably. Further analyses showed that students who judged similarities of pairs of concepts, facts, and events from the Great Depression era in an expert-like manner constructed more correct links for those same pairs in their concept maps. MIMIC (multiple indicators, multiple causes) structural modeling was used to analyze relationships among causal and indicator measures of the construct "cognitive structure." Two concept-mapping measures (semantic content score, organizational structure score) and 2 writing task dimensions (content quality and argumentation) were chosen to represent indicators of the construct. Findings suggest that domain-specific measures predict performance on construct indicators.

Herl, H. E., H. F. O'Neil, Jr., et al. (1997). "Feasibility of an On-line Concept Mapping Construction and Scoring System."
Abstract:
The feasibility of the administration, scoring, and reporting of an on-line concept mapping system has been studied in collective research in which concept map construction systems were designed to allow students individually and collaboratively to construct concept maps on the computer to measure content understanding and collaboration. The study reported an attempt to implement a closed map construction system using expert- constructed concept maps to provide automated scoring and feedback for student-constructed concept maps. Participants were 138 middle school and high school students in 9 classes in 4 schools. Each student completed one of two on-line concept mapping tasks, one a collaborative task for three students and the other an individual problem-solving and search task. Students used the Hyper-Card concept mapping software developed for the study. Descriptive statistics associated with the concept maps were semantic content score,
organizational structure score, number of terms used, and number of concept links formed. A total of 22 group concept maps were scored according to expert criteria, and pairwise agreement results for the scoring systems appeared to be good, with exact agreement percentages in the 80% range. (Contains 2 figures, 2 tables, and 14 references.) (SLD)

Herl, H., O'Neil, H., Chung, G., Bianchi, C., Wang, S., Mayer, R., Lee, C., Choi, A., Suen, T, and Tu, A. (1999). Final Report for Validation of Problem Solving Measures. Los Angeles, CA, CRESST: 1-78.

Herl, H. E., H. F. O'Neil, et al. (1999). "Reliability and validity of a computer-based knowledge mapping system to measure content understanding." Computers in Human Behavior 15: 315-333.
reliability & validity of computer-based knowledge mapping
system, assessment of student content understanding & collaboration &
problem-solving skills, middle & high school teachers
Abstract: 149 middle and high school students participated in two
computer-based knowledge mapping studies: (1) students constructed group maps
while collaborating over a network, and (2) students constructed individual
maps, attempting to improve their maps while searching a Web space. Results
showed that knowledge map scores increased significantly from fall to spring
for students constructing maps individually while searching a web space
containing relevant and irrelevant information about environmental science.
This finding supports the position that students' abilities in searching and
processing information on the Internet may have increased as a result of
using computer technology over the course of the school year. On the other
hand, virtually no differences were found for group knowledge maps from fall
to spring, and therefore no clear relationships among content understanding
and collaboration were found. Four teachers' knowledge maps served as "expert
criteria" to evaluate individual student's and group's knowledge maps. The
most important reliability issue for both studies focused on inter-expert
agreement using teachers' maps to score students' maps. In the studies
presented here, inter-expert pairwise agreements for both studies were in the
80-90 percentage range.

Hertz-Lazorowitz, R. (1990). An integrative model of the classroom: the enhancement of cooperation in learning. American Educational Research Association Conference, Boston, MA.

Hertz-Lazorowitz, R. (1992). Six mirrors of the classroom: a pathway to co-operative learning. El Paso, TX.

Heylighen, F. (1997). "Bootstrapping knowledge representations: from entailment meshes via semantic nets to learning webs." International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.

Hiebert, B. and P. Johnson (1994). "Changes in Counseling Skills and Cognitive Structures of Counselor Trainees."
Abstract:
While most counselor training programs highlight basic counseling skills, few programs address the development of counselors' conceptual abilities. This study explores the changes in conceptualizations of counseling and the corresponding changes in the counseling skills of prepracticum counseling trainees. Six graduate students in a counselor training program participated. Testers administered pretest and posttest assessments on the first and last classes. Researchers then obtained counselor conceptualizations via a cognitive mapping task-- a two-step process in which probe questions generate concepts and then the latter are arranged into a pictorial map which illustrates how the concepts relate to the participant's thinking. The small sample size did not permit analysis of relationships between conceptual change and change in skill use, though several relevant observations were made. Primarily, this study provides support for a microcounseling approach to
skill training; microcounseling enhanced counseling skill for this group. Changes in structuring skills showed that participants learned to structure their sessions to provide a meaningful context for promoting client insight which in turn facilitated client learning and change. Results suggest that counseling skills could be enhanced by concomitant training in the conceptualization of factors that affect client change. Participants' cognitive maps contained in an appendix. Contains 15 references. (RJM)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-8, 1994).


Publication type:
Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150); Guides-Information analysis (070)

Hinkle, D. N. (1965). The change of personal constructs from the viewpoint of a theory of implications., Ohio State University.

Hoede, C. (1994). "modelling knowledge in electronic study books." Journal of Computer-Assisted Learning 10(104-112).

Hoeft, R. M., F. Jentsch, et al. (accepted). Structural knowledge assessment with the Team Performance Laboratory’s Knowledge Analysis Test Suite (TPL-KATS). Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Hoeft, R. M., F. Jentsch, et al. (under review). "TPL-KATS Concept Map: A practical knowledge assessment tool."

Hoffman, R. R., B. Crandall, et al. (1998). "A case study in cognitive task analysis methodology: The Critical Decision Method for the elicitation of expert knowledge." Human Factors 40: 254-276.

Hoffman, R. R., J. W. Coffey, et al. (2000). A Case Study in the Research Paradigm of Human-Centered Computing: Local Expertise in Weather Forecasting." Report on the Contract, "Human-Centered System Prototype. Washington, DC: National Technology Alliance.

Hoffman, R. R., N. Shadbolt, et al. (1995). "Eliciting knowledge from experts: A methodological analysis." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 62: 129-158.

Hoffman, R. R., N. Shadbolt, et al. (1995). "Eliciting knowledge from experts: A methodological analysis." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 62: 129-158.

Holley, C. D. and D. Dansereau (1984). Networking: The Technique and the Empirical Evidence. Spatial Learning Strategies: Techniques, Applications and Related Issues. C. D. Holley and D. Dansereau. San Diego, Academic Press: 81-108.

Horan, M. (1999). "What Students See: Sketch Maps as Tools for Assessing Knowledge of Libraries." Journal of Academic Librarianship 25(3): 187-201.
Abstract:
Explores sketch maps as an easy-to-use and easy-to-understand tool for assessing library skills, knowledge, and interest among individuals and groups. The underlying principles are found in research done with maps and surveys collected for environmental psychology, urban planning, and human geography. Includes nine figures of map examples and an appendix tabulating categories and percent appearance in the sketch maps. (Author/AEF)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142)

Hori, K. (1997). "Concept space connected to knowledge processing for supporting creative design." Knowledge-Based Sysytems 10: 29-35.

Horton, P. B., A. A. McConney, et al. (1993). "An investigation of the effectiveness of concept mapping as an instructional tool." Science Education 77(1): 95-111.

Howard, R. (1989). "Knowledge Maps." Management Science 35(8): 903-922.

Hoz, R., D. Bowman, et al. (2001). "The differential effects of prior knowledge on learning: a study of two consecutive courses in earth sciences." Instructional Science 29(187-211).
Hoz, R., Bowman, D., & Kozminsky, E. (2001). The differential effects of prior knowledge on learning: a study of two consecutive courses in earth sciences. Instructional Science, 29(187-211).

Abstract: We studied the occurrence and nature of learning in a university first year Introduction to Geomorphology course, and its relations with prior knowledge taught in a prerequisite course, and with the prior knowledge in the to be learned subjects. Ten dimensions of knowledge were tapped before and after the course by conventional and cognitive structure measures that were derived by the concept mapping methodology. The fine-grain analysis of learning outcomes yielded the following results: (a) students acquired only a small portion of the content in the course Introduction to Geomorphology, (b) the prior geological and geomorphological knowledge did not affect the learning of the new geomorphological contents, (c) the minor effects appeared within rather than across knowledge dimensions, and they affected mainly the learning of smaller knowledge units, and (d) concept definition cannot be considered a valid probe of knowledge. The differential effects of prior knowledge question the central, global and undifferentiated role that schema theories ascribe to prior knowledge in future learning. They call for greater reference to the exposed dimensions of knowledge by suggesting additional factors to be considered in the sequencing of courses, as well as to the acquisition of complex knowledge with partial meaning of the basic knowledge units, and the use of new cognitive structure probes of knowledge.

Hoz, R., D. Bowman, et al. (1997). "Psychometric and Edumetric Validity of Dimensions of Geomorphological Knowledge Which Are Tapped by Concept Mapping." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 34(9): 925-948.
Abstract:
Students (N=14) in a geomorphology course took an objective geomorphology test, the tree construction task, and the Standardized Concept Structuring Analysis Technique (SConSAT) version of concept mapping. Results suggest that the SConSAT knowledge structure dimensions have moderate to good construct validity. Contains 82 references. (DDR)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Hoz, R., Y. Tomer, et al. (1990). "The relations between disciplinary and pedagogical knowledge and the length of teaching experience of biology and geography teachers."

Huai, H. (1997). "Concept Mapping in Learning Biology: Theoretical Review on Cognitive and Learning Styles." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3-4): 325-340.
Abstract:
Describes the current situation of teaching and learning in China and the features of biology science; reviews existing theories of cognitive and learning styles as well as concept mapping. A Concept Mapping Training Course is outlined which incorporates concept mapping into biology learning. Students' different cognitive styles are taken into account in the course design. (Author/AEF)


Notes:
Theme issue: "Concept Mapping."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Huang, M.-J. (1999). "A Fuzzy Student Modeling with Two Intelligent Agents." Journal of Educational Computing Research 21(1): 99-113.
Abstract:
A new fuzzy student modeling method with two intelligent agents, a diagnosis agent and a learning agent, are suggested by this article for several aspects of student modeling in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Also integrated are fuzzy theories and Fuzzy-Hasse diagrams for student modeling. (Author/AEF)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Huff, A. S. and M. Jenkins (2002). Mapping Strategic Knowledge. London, Sage Publications.

Hughes, G. and D. Hay (???). "Just content with technology for delivery? Towards a heuristic model for designing online learning environments."

Hutchison, C. S. (1995). "Concept Reading: A Process for Re-engineering Processes." Performance and Instruction 34(9): 12-22.
Abstract:
Discusses reengineering in the context of organizational processes, and presents six steps for reengineering business processes: (1) prepare to reengineer; (2) map what is occurring to accomplish processes; (3) map what should be occurring; (4) implement; (5) evaluate; and (6) monitor. Also offers a related reading list. (JMV)


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Hyerle, D. (1996). Visual Tools for Constructing Knowledge. Visual Tools for Constructing Knowledge.

Jacobsen, M. and J. Levin (??). "Conceptual frameworks for network learning environments: Constructing personal and shared knowledge spaces." International Journal of Educational Telecommunications 1(4): 367-388.

Jegede, O. J., F. Alaiyemola, et al. (1990). "The effect of concept mapping on students' anxiety and achievement in biology." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 951-960.

Jensen, J. W., D. Kauchak, et al. (2001). "Teacher Candidates' Beliefs: Implications for Practice."
Abstract:
In a best-evidence synthesis of studies that examine change in teacher candidates' conceptions and practices during their teacher education course work, too few researchers provide evidence for the linkage between candidates' beliefs and their learning. To address this problem, a mixed-design study explored on the micro- level (i.e., a lesson) the connections between differential learning among four teacher candidates and their beliefs. Specifically, concept maps, a postmapping questionnaire, stimulated recall interviews, and a short answer assessment revealed connections between candidates' beliefs and their learning. Analysis of these data provided evidence that candidates' beliefs were good predictors of those candidates who learned the most and the least. Implications for future research concerning the beliefs that teacher candidates bring to teacher education, and how various instructional approaches influence these beliefs, are discussed. (Contains 18
references.) (Author/SM)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (53rd, Dallas, TX, March 1-4, 2001).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Jeong, I., M. Evens, et al. (1998). Knowledge acquisition and knowledge visualization. FLAIRS??

Johnson, S. D. and R. E. Satchwell (1993). "The Effect of Functional Flow Diagrams on Apprentice Aircraft Mechanics' Technical System Understanding." Performance Improvement Quarterly 6(4): 73-91.
bstract:
Describes an experimental study that tested the impact of a conceptual illustration on college students' understanding of the structure, function, and behavior of complex technical systems. The use of functional flow diagrams in aircraft mechanics' training is explained, a concept map analysis is discussed, and implications for technical training are suggested. (Contains 33 references.) (LRW)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Johnson, P. and G. Johnson (2002). Facilitating group mapping of core competencies. Mapping Strategic Management. A. S. Huff and M. Jenkins. London, Sage Publications.

Jonassen, D. and S. Wang (1993). "Acquiring structural knowledge from semantically structured hypertext." Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 20(1): 1-8.

Jonassen, D. (1993). "Changes in knowledge structures from building semantic net versus production rule representations of subject content." Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 20(4): 99-106.

Jonassen, D. (2000). Computers as Mindtools for Schools. Columbus OH, Merrill.

Jonassen, D. H. (1996). Computers in the classroom: Mindtools for critical thinking. Englewoods, NJ, Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Jonassen, D. H. and R. Marra (1994). "Concept mapping and other formalisms as Mindtools for representing knowledge." ALT-J 2(1): 50-56.

Jonassen, D. H., T. C. Reeves, et al. (1997). "Concept Mapping as Cognitive Learning and Assessment Tools." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3-4): 289-308.
Abstract:
Presents a conceptual foundation for using concept mapping as a cognitive learning strategy and as a method for assessing structural knowledge; reviews the growing body of research related to both applications. Describes some of the conceptual and empirical limitations of concept mapping. (Author/AEF)


Notes:
Theme issue: "Concept Mapping."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Jonassen, D. H. (1988). "Developing a Cognitive Map of Research and Theory in Instructional Systems Technology."
Abstract:
Cognitive mapping is used in this paper to develop a schemata which represents the knowledge domain or research and theory structure of the field of instructional technology (IST). Using the technique defined by Diekhoff and Diekhoff (1982), the primary set of concepts in instructional technology research were compared for similarity with all of the other concepts in a pairwise fashion, with the structure defined by the intercorrelation matrix of similarities. Participants were members of the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Concepts were drawn from a study of the research interest of the membership; a review of titles, headings, and keywords from the Educational Communication and Technology Journal; and the Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors. Participants were asked to rate terms in relation to their importance to the field of IST research and theory, and then to rate the degree of
similarity or relatedness of 100 pairwise comparisons of randomly selected concepts. The 35 most important concepts from the first list were used to create a smaller sample of the responses from the second list, and a two-dimensional solution was plotted which shows that the IST field has a theory-into-practice orientation; however, it is suggested that a multi-dimensional analysis might produce more intellectual dimensions. A figure depicts the two dimensional plotting. (EW)


Notes:
In: Proceedings of Selected Research Papers presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (New Orleans, LA, January 14-19, 1988). For the complete proceedings, see IR 013 331.


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Jonassen, D. H. (1993). Effects of systematically structured hypertext knowledge bases on users' knowledge structures. Hypertext: A psychological perspective. C. McKnight, A. Dillon and J. Richardson. Chichester, UK, Ellis Horwood: 153-168.

Jonassen, D. H. (1989). Hypertext/hypermedia. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Educational Technology Publications.

Jonassen, D. H., K. Beissner, et al. (1993). Structural knowledge: Techniques for representing, conveying and acquiring structural knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum.

Jones, M. G. and E. Vesilind (1994). Changes in the Structure of Pedagogical Knowledge of Middle School Preservice Teachers.
Abstract:
This study was conducted to examine how the organization of preservice teachers' (N=23) knowledge about teaching changed during the last year of their undergraduate program which included a teaching methods course and student teaching. In order to explore cognitive organization three tools were combined: multidimensional scaling, concept mapping, and interviews. Subjects received instruction on how to draw concept maps and were asked to draw them four times--before the senior year, at the end of the fall semester, in the middle of student teaching, and at the end of student teaching. Following each phase, the previous map was returned and subjects were to decide if they would organize their knowledge differently. Prior to an interview they were asked to draw a new map, modify their old one, or redraw the old map as it was. Drawings were coded and scored and the sample concepts of "flexibility" and "planning" were selected for further analysis through
multidimensional scaling and student interviews. Data analysis revealed that during student teaching the preservice teachers' pedagogical knowledge underwent radical reconstruction, involving a reorganization of prior knowledge, theories, and beliefs. Figures depicting concept maps and students' multidimensional scaling are included. (Contains 22 references.) (LL)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-8, 1994).


Publication type:
Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Jones, M. G., G. Carter, et al. (1999). "Children's Concepts: Tools for Transforming Science Teachers' Knowledge." Science Education 83(5): 545-557.
Examined the roles that students' science concepts play in promoting teachers' professional growth. Two cohorts of teachers (N = 26 and 30) participated in the study as part of a constructivist-based graduate course on elementary and middle school science methods. A modified learning cycle was used during course instruction as a framework for teachers to explore sound, light, and electricity. Data on teachers' pedagogical and conceptual growth was obtained from pre- and postconcept maps, journal reflections, and portfolios. Results of the concept map analysis showed that teachers' maps became more integrated and cohesive as seen in the increase of crosslinks, hierarchies, and relationships drawn for each science topic. The journals and portfolios showed that students' science knowledge served as discrepant events that evoked teachers' dissatisfaction with their own content knowledge and motivated them to reconsider their pedagogical practices. Students' concepts also served as change agents, resulting in changes in teachers' views of their roles and instructional behaviors.

((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)

Jones, M. G., G. Carter, et al. (2000). "Exploring the Development of Conceptual Ecologies: Communities of Concepts Related to Convection and Heat." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 37(2): 139-159.
Abstract:
Examines the relationships and development of communities of concepts related to heat and convection among fifth grade students. Discusses the influence of familial and cultural experiences on conceptual development as well as the extent to which competing phenomena affect the development of new conceptual understandings. (Contains 49 references.) (Author/WRM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Jones, G. and E. Vesiland (1996). "Putting theory into practice: Changes in the organization of preservice teachers' pedagogical knowledge." American Educational Research Journal 33(1): 91-117.

Jones, T. and G. Baxter (1999). "Student Explorations and Patterns of Use in a Hypermedia Learning Environment." Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning 2(5).

Josten, D. (1997). " Ideas in Practice: "How Can I Tell What's Important?"" Journal of Developmental Education 20(3): 28-32.
Abstract:
Describes Subject-Attitude-Development (SAD) mapping, a technique for helping developmental reading students focus on information relevant to an author's thesis and recognize relationships between the thesis, main ideas, and supporting details. Discusses strategies for implementing SAD maps and student reactions to the technique. Includes sample maps. (10 citations) (AJL)


Publication type:
Guides-Viewpoints (opinion papers, position papers, essays, etc.)(120); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Kaicheng, Y. and H. Kekang An Intelligent Hypermedia Teaching System for Chinese Language Learning.

Katayama, A. and D. Robinson (2000). "Getting students "partially" involved in note-taking using graphic organizers." Journal of Experimental Education 68(2): 119-135.
Studied the encoding benefits of graphic-organizer and outline note-taking using spaced study and review. Results with 117 undergraduates show no effect on the factual test for either study notes or amount of information, but on the application test, graphic organizers were better than outlines and partial notes were better than complete notes. (SLD)

Katayama, A. and D. Robinson (2000). "Getting students "partially" involved in note-taking using graphic organizers." Journal of Experimental Education 68(2): 119-133.

Katayama, A. D. and A. Others (1996). " Which Adjunct Displays Help Students Learn Best? A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Researcher-Constructed Displays."
Abstract:
Three experiments were conducted to investigate whether graphic organizers (GOs) were more effective than concept maps (CMs) in facilitating text learning. Experiment 1, which involved 56 undergraduates, was a replication of the second experiment of D. H. Robinson and K. A. Kiewra (1995) except that only GO and CM conditions were included. All materials were constructed by outside sources to help avoid researcher bias. Experiment 2, with 46 undergraduates, used a different text and separate GO, CM, and test constructors. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 except that the GO constructor constructed the tests. Results show that GOs only facilitated text learning when they were constructed by the person who also constructed the tests. The implications of this study are that adjunct displays will probably not be useful for classroom learning unless the tests match the types of learning the displays are intended to facilitate. (Contains 15
references.) (Author/SLD)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8- 12, 1996).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Kealy, W. (2001). "Knowledge maps and thier use in computer-based collaborative learning environments." Journal of Educational Computing Research 25(4): 325-349.
Abstract:
Studied conceptual learning by 13 graduate students at a university in the southeastern US during a 6-wk course that employed the Internet for collaborative learning of on-line articles. Five groups were formed with each creating a knowledge map, a diagram that graphically arranges and interconnects concepts to show their relationship, during the 1st and 5th wk of the course. Multidimensional scaling analysis was used to study the change in each group's mapping over time to determine the influence of a computer-based collaborative learning environment on conceptual understanding. The analysis was also used to compare a knowledge map and a similarity rating (of the same 10 concepts) completed by each student at the end of the course. Results of the 1st analysis indicate that, despite the collaborative nature of the learning environment, groups did not become more similar over time in their understanding of key concepts. However, the 2nd analysis reveals
common student perceptions about the dimensions that characterized the conceptual relationships. It is concluded that knowledge maps are comparable to rating instruments, thereby supporting recent research claims that they are valid representations of conceptual knowledge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Kelly, G. (1955). Principles of Personal Construct Psychology. New York, Norton.

Keng, H.-T. (1999). A comparative study of note-taking, outlining and concept mapping learning strategies on national Taipei teachers college students' understanding of heat and temperature

ALSO doctoral dissertation -same title - 1996, University of Iowa
. ESERA: Research in Science Education: Past, Present, and Future. Proceedings of the Second International Conference of the European Science Education Research Association 8/31-9/4, 1999 Kiel, Germany.

Kennedy, D. and C. McNaught (1997). "Use of concept mapping in the design of learning tools for interactive multimedia." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3/4): 389-406.

Keppell, M. (1999). The use of case stories to examine the instructional designer and the subject matter expert interaction.

Kim, S. C. (2000). "Investigating the Generalizability of Scores from Different Rating Systems in Performance Assessment."
Abstract:
The generalizability of scores from different scales in performance assessment was studied. First, a concept map of teachers' and raters' perceptions about various scores and scales was constructed using multidimensional scaling analysis. Then, a generalizability study using a random, partially nested design was conducted to analyze the differences in the various rating systems. This study estimated the variance component of tasks, raters, and evaluative factor based on the scoring systems and determined the optimal number of grading conditions of each facet that maximized the generalizability coefficient. Data for the concept map were from questionnaires completed by about 218 middle school teachers in Korea. Data for the generalizability study were from two different scoring systems used to rate a report and presentation by each student in a middle school social studies class in Korea. The scores of 188 random samples used in the study
were the interim scores of each factor before summing up a total score. Results show that the scoring of the performance task using the different rating systems was very consistent from rater to rater. However, the relatively large variance components suggested that the written report was rated differently across the different systems. Findings also suggest that when the student's report or presentation was being assessed, the generalizability of scores was enhanced by combining the ratings from more than one rater, mainly because this effectively increased the number of factors being evaluated. For ratings of performance, the generalizability coefficient increased considerably as the evaluative factors for the scoring standard became more specific. (Contains 19 references.) (SLD)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association(New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Kim, Y.-s., P. J. Germann, et al. (1998). "Preservice Secondary Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: By Investigating Their Concept Maps and Final Reflection Paper."
Abstract:
This paper reports on the analysis of concept maps of the nature of science constructed by preservice secondary science teachers during a semester-long reflective process. During the 16-week fall semester of 1996, 17 students were enrolled in a 5-credit course. After analyzing all students' concept maps, students were classified as either good mappers or poor mappers. Two students were selected to investigate conceptual development and change from their initial concept maps to their final reflection paper. These case studies reveal some issues that need to be sorted out, including: (1) students did not revise their concept maps over the semester; (2) the issue of the value of science remained unsettled; (3) students focus more on the instability of scientific knowledge rather than on its stability; and (4) few students integrate the scientific assumptions discussed in class into their concept maps or papers. These findings have the
potential to inform understanding of how to prepare science teachers. Contains 19 references. (DDR)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (71st, San Diego, CA, April 19-22, 1998).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Kinchin, I. (2000). "Concept mapping in biology." Journal of Biological Education 34(2): 61-68.
suggests usefulness of concept maps in education in:
planning and prepation
formative learning
revealing and activating prior knowledge
identifying misconceptions
directing reading
focusing discussions
differentiation for collaborative learning
summary/revision guides
assessment

some references provided for these

suggests need for concept maps to be integrated with other class activities

Kinchin, I. (1998). Constructivism in the classroom: mapping your way through. British Educational Research Association, The Queens University of Belfast.

Kinchin, I., D. Hay, et al. (2000). "How a qualitative approach to concept map analysis can be used to aid learning by illustrating patterns of conceptual development." Educational Research 42(1): 43-57.

Kinchin, I. (2001). "If concept mapping is so helpful to learning biology, why aren't we all doing it?" International Journal of Science Education 23(12): 1257-1269.

Kinchin, I. M. (2000). " Using Concept Maps To Reveal Understanding: A Two-Tier Analysis." School Science Review 81(296): 41-46.

Abstract:
Finds that the construction of concept maps may help students make links between scientific concepts and related topic areas. Describes different methods of concept map analysis which illustrate different levels of conceptual development. (CCM)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Kinnear, J., M. Martin, et al. (1982). "Computer simulation and concept development in students of genetics." Research in Science Education 12: 89-96.

Kinnear, J. (1994). What science education really says about communication of science concepts. International Communication Association, Sydney, New South Wales, Austrailia.

Klein, G., R. Calderwood, et al. (1989). "Critical decision method of eliciting knowledge." IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 19: 462-472.

Klein, H. (1999). Normative Cognitive Maps. Academy of Management Conference, Chicago, IL.

Klivlighan, D. M. and S. T. Quigley (1991). "Dimensions used by experienced and novice group therapists to conceptualize group process." Journal of Counseling Psychology. 38: 415-423.

Kommers, P. (1997). Conceptual Awareness for Students Navigation in the Information Ocean.

Kommers, P., B. F. Lenting, et al. (1998). "Distributed collaborative learning in a telematic context. Telematic learning support and its potential for collaborative learning with new paradigms and conceptual mapping tools." Educational Media International, 35(2), 100-105. 35(2): 100-105.
Kommers, P., Lenting, B. F., & van der Veer, C. G. (1998). Distributed collaborative learning in a telematic context. Telematic learning support and its potential for collaborative learning with new paradigms and conceptual mapping tools. Educational Media International, 35(2), 100-105.

Abstract: Describes a recent computer-supported cooperative-learning (CSCL) project called TSCL (Telematic (and IT) Supported Co-operative Learning) which builds upon distributed knowledge and constructivism. It takes the opportunity of Internet-based communication tools to allow students to participate in nonschool environments such as expert discussions, socially engaged groups like peace organizations, environmental health, and technical discussions. (Author/AEF)

Notes: RIC document #: EJ572110

Kommers, P. and J. Lanzing (1997). "Students' Concept Mapping for Hypermedia Design: Navigation through World Wide Web (WWW) Space and Self- Assessment." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3-4): 421-455.
Abstract:
Addresses the main functions of concept mapping as a student activity in their learning processes: (1) design method to be used as a structural scaffolding technique before and during the development of hypermedia; (2) navigation device for exploring hypermedia documents on CD-ROMs or WWW; (3) knowledge elicitation technique; and (4) authentic knowledge assessment tool. (Author/AEF)


Notes:
Theme issue: "Concept Mapping."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142)

Kommers, D. P. A. M., B. F. Lenting, et al. "Telematic Learning Support and its Potential for Collaborative Learning with new Paradigms and Conceptual Mapping Tools.
Distributed Collaborative Learning in a Telematic Context."

Koneman, P. A. and D. H. Jonassen (1994). "Hypertext Interface Design and Structural Knowledge Acquisition."
Abstract:
Hypertext is well-suited for educational applications where open learning and knowledge exploration is desired. In such applications, principles of good hypertext interface design should be employed to avoid navigational problems so as to maximize learning. Interface design, however, may also directly enhance acquisition of a particular knowledge structure. An interface that is based upon an expert's structural knowledge map may assist novice learners in developing a more sophisticated knowledge structure more closely resembling that of an expert. Pathfinder networks have been used successfully to differentiate expert and novice knowledge structures. The procedures described in this paper were used to design a structured interface for use in a research study currently in progress. Two microcomputer programs were used to develop the interface: The Knowledge Network Orientation Tool (KNOT) was used to create the pathfinder network, and Asymetrix Toolbook
for the hypertext application. (Contains 19 references.) (Author/JLB)


Notes:
In: Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the 1994 National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Sponsored by the Research and Theory Division (16th, Nashville, TN, February 16-20, 1994); see IR 016 784.


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Koubek, R., T. Clarkston, et al. (1994). "The training of knowledge structures for manufacturing tasks: an empirical study." Ergonomics 37(4): 765-780.

Kowalchuk, E. (1997). "Differing Perceptions of Art and Teaching: Examining How Beginning and Experienced Teachers Think about Art in Instruction."
Abstract:
This paper examines differences between beginning and experienced art teachers' perceptions of teaching and learning. The paper first discusses how experienced and novice art teachers may vary in their thinking and approaches to instructional content. It then focuses on the results of a project that investigated curriculum development and teacher thinking through the use of concept maps. The paper notes that concept maps, often used to visually represent the relationship between ideas, may provide a way of understanding, extending, and assessing art teachers' perceptions of the relationships among art content, pedagogical strategies, student learning, and other factors that influence teaching. By comparing the varying conceptions of teaching held by beginning and experienced teachers, the paper suggests ways of enriching approaches to art teacher preparation. Contains two tables, four figures, and eight references. (BT)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Symposium "Stories about Perception: Honouring the Work of Ron MacGregor" (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 27-28, 1997).


Publication type:
Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Kremer, R. (1994). Concept mapping: Informal to formal. International Conference on Conceptual Structures, University of Maryland.

Kremer, R. "Concept Maps: Class Notes for Advanced Information Systems."
basically course notes, but reviews some suggestions for concept map help and advice while building

Kremer, R. (1995). The design of a concept mapping environment for knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation. International Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, Banff, Cananda.

Kremer, R. and B. Gaines (1996). Embedded Interactive Concept maps in Web Documents. WebNet World Conference of the Web Society, San Francisco, CA.

Kremer, R. and B. Gaines (1994). Groupware Concept Mapping Techniques. SIGDOC '94: ACM 12th Annual International Conference on Systems Documentation, ACM Press.

Kremer, R. (1997). Multi-User Interactive Concept Maps for the Learning Web. ED-MEDIA, ED-TELECOM, Calgary, Canada.

Krockover, G., P. Adams, et al. (2001). "Action-based Research Teams: Collaborating To Improve Science Instruction. Injecting Energy into Science Education." Journal of College Science Teaching 30(5): 313-317.
Abstract:
Describes a project based on the collaboration of scientists, science educators, graduate and undergraduate students, and master teachers for the improvement of teaching introductory science courses. Uses action-based research teams (ABRTs) as the teaching tool to change the curriculum, which provides a mechanism for the implementation of changes and to analyze impacts and adaptations based on the needs of the institution. (Contains 14 references.) (YDS)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Kuhn, D. a. N., J. (1971). "A study of cognitve subsumption in the life sciences." Science Education 55(3): 309-320.

Kulhavy, R., W. Stock, et al. (1994). Reference maps as a framework for remembering text. Comprehension of Graphics. W. Schnotz and R. Kulhavy.
spatial image coding of maps, working memory for associated text information, application of dual visual verbal coding theory
Abstract:
(chapter) develops a theory based in dual [visual-verbal] coding, that explains why learning a map improves memory for associated text information / the basic premise is that visual displays such as maps are encoded as intact images which retain the spatial properties of the objective stimulus / such images possess a computational advantage in working memory because the information within them is simultaneously available to cue retrieval of related text / describes 8 experiments all of which support both the image coding and working memory assumptions

Kunkel, M. A. and S. Newsom (1996). "Presenting Problems for Mental Health Services: A Concept Map." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 18(1): 53-63.

Abstract:
Uses concept mapping to elaborate the content and structure of clients' presenting problems. Employs a meaning- focused examination of problems and seeks to understand and organize obstacles as experienced by clients. Discusses the concept-mapping technique is and presents a two-dimensional concept map of 70 presenting problems. Discusses implications for research and practice. (EMK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Kuperman, G. (1992). Information requirements analysis for transatmospheric vehicles., Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.

Laffey, J. and J. Singer (1997). "Using mapping for cognitive assessment in project-based science." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3/4): 363-387.

Laffey, J. M. and J. Singer (1997). "Using Mapping for Cognitive Assessment in Project-Based Science." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3-4): 363-387.
Abstract:
To advance understanding of how mapping can contribute to project-based science (PBS) and cognitive assessment, 31 high school students used mapping in a year-long PBS course; mapping was one component of a set of assessment techniques. Teacher and student interviews, student surveys, and assessment scores show that mapping, as a visual representation of student understanding, benefits both the doing and assessment of projects. (Author/AEF)


Notes:
Theme issue: "Concept Mapping."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Lambiotte, J. and D. Dansereau (1992). "Effects of knowledge maps and prior knowledge on recall of science lecture content." Journal of Experimental Education 60(3): 189-201.
knowledge maps & outlines & key word lecture aids, recall of biology lecture material, college students
Abstract:
Compared the effects of 3 types of lecture aids on students' recall of 2 college-level biology lectures. 74 undergraduates listened to taped lectures while viewing either knowledge maps, outlines, or lists of the key terms presented on overhead transparencies. Free-recall tests revealed that listeners with low prior knowledge of biology learned the most when knowledge maps accompanied the lecture and the least when key terms were listed. For listeners with high prior knowledge, however, the opposite was true. Analysis of recall coherence revealed that learners recalled significantly fewer fragmented facts after viewing maps or outlines than after viewing lists. Prior knowledge was a significant factor in all analyses. Results are interpreted in terms of R. E. Mayer's (1989) cognitive model of assimilation encoding.

Lambiotte, J., Skaggs, L. and Dansereau, D. (1993). "Learning from lectures: Effects of knowledge maps and cooperative review strategies." Applied Cognitive Psychology 7: 483-497.
lists vs knowledge maps in lectures & cooperative vs individual review strategies, free recall & learning & metacognition, college students
Abstract:
85 undergraduates viewed either knowledge maps or lists while hearing a lecture on descriptive statistics, then reviewed the information alone or with a partner, using either maps or lists as review aids. Measures included free recall, scores on a multiple-choice test, self-reports of prior knowledge and confidence, and repeated-measures ratings of comprehension and predicted test performance. Recall performance was influenced significantly by the interaction of format with confidence; that is, less confident students were helped by having maps while more confident students did better with lists. Map-users annotated their handouts less than list users. Also, the metacognitions of map-users with regard to their comprehension and predicted performance were less accurate than list-users. Map-users with low confidence had the least accurate metacognitions.

Lambiotte, J., D. Dansereau, et al. (1989). "Multirelational semantic maps." Educational Psychology Review 1(4): 331-367.
origins & strengths & weaknesses of multirelational semantic maps in educational setting
Abstract:
Describes the distinctive features of knowledge maps, discusses their origins, and explores some of the strengths and weaknesses of the wide variety of maps and mapping approaches that have been appearing in the literature over the past several years. Research findings pertaining to maps' potential and actual uses in educational settings are summarized, with some indepth attention to the more programmatic efforts of J. D. Novak et al (1983) as well as to the authors' own mapping system. Suggestions are made for future exploration of, and experimentation on, maps as unique tools for organizing, representing, and communicating a wide variety of knowledge domains.

Lang, M. and J. Olson (2000). "Intergrated Science Teaching as a Challenge for Teachers to Develop New Conceptual Structures." Research in Science Education 30(2): 213-224.
Abstract:
Questions whether self-assessment helps teachers develop new conceptual structures in the context of integrated science. Examined 22 inservice teachers with concept maps, interviews, and questionnaires while they used teaching materials for eight integrated topics in the German PING Project. Discusses the importance of using self-assessment to help teachers develop integrated conceptual structures. (Contains 39 references.) (Author/YDS)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Langer, E. (2000). "Mindful Learning." Current Directions in Psychological Science 9(6): 220-223.

Langfield-Smith, K. (1992). "Exploring the need for a shared cognitive map." Journal of Management Studies 29(3): 349-369.

Lavoie, D. R. (1997). Using a modified concept mapping strategy to identify students' alternative scientific understandings of biology. Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, March 21-. 24, Chicago, Illinois.

Leake, D. B., T. Bauer, et al. "Capture, storage and reuse of lessons about information resources: Supporting task-based information search."

Lebowitz, S. J. (1998). "Use of Vee Maps in a College Science Laboratory."
Abstract:
Students (n=45) in an introductory course in hydrology used a Vee map to guide their laboratory investigation. The Vee mapping technique was utilized by groups of students working together during the investigation and was graded with a scoring rubric developed by the instructor. At the end of the investigation, students completed a survey evaluating their perceptions of using the Vee map approach over the traditional, direct laboratory approach. The results of this study suggest that Vee maps have the potential to stimulate more thinking and learning than is commonly experienced in the traditional laboratory format. (DDR)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (71st, San Diego, CA, April 19-22, 1998).

Leelawong, K., Y. Wang, et al. (2001). Qualitative reasoning techniques to support learning by teaching: The teachable agents project. Proceedings of the Qualitative Modeling Workshop, San Antonio, TX: AAAI.

Lehman, J., C. Carter, et al. (1985). "Concept mapping, vee mapping and achievement: results of a field study with black high school students." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 22(7): 663-673.

Leonard, W. H. (2000). "How Do College Students Best Learn Science?" Journal of College Science Teaching 29(6): 385-388.
Abstract:
Indicates the reasons for the lack of success of lecture method among high school students. Compares the constructivist approach to the objectivist approach and discusses student learning differences. Makes recommendations for student learning needs. (Contains 37 references.) (YDS)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Lian, M. W. S. (1998). "An Investigation into High-Achiever and Low-Achiever Knowledge Organisation and Knowledge Processing in Concept Mapping: A Case Study." Research in Science Education 28(3): 337-352.
Abstract:
Uses concept-map content analysis and interviews to gain insights into the knowledge organization and knowledge processing of preservice teachers (N=48). Concludes that active cognitive processing of knowledge is related to complex cognitive structures. Contains 29 references. (DDR)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Lin, H.-M. Learning digital design by concept mapping.

Liu, X. and M. Hinchey (1996). "The internal consistency of a concept mapping scoring scheme and its effect on prediction validity." International Journal of Science Education 18(8): 921-937.

Liu, X., J. Ebenezer, et al. (2002). "Structural characteristics of university engineering students' conceptions of energy." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 39(5): 423-441.

Lloyd, C. (1990). "The elaboration of concepts in three biology textbooks: Facilitating student learning." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 1019-1032.

Lord, C., D. Desforge, et al. (1994). "Typicality effects in attitudes towards social policies: a concept mapping approach." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66(4): 658-673.

Lowe, R. (1996). "Background knowledge and the construction of a situational representation from a diagram." European Journal of the Psychology of Education 11(4): 377-397.
mental representations of graphic elements of weather map diagram based on background knowledge, nonmeteorologist graduate students vs meteorologists, Australia
Abstract:
Eight meteorologists' and 8 nonmeteorologists' (i.e., graduate students') mental representations were investigated using a 3-stage card-sorting task during which Ss generated hierarchical groupings of the graphic elements of an Australian weather map diagram. Cluster analysis showed that the 2 groups differed fundamentally in the basis of their sorting behavior. Ss' justifications of the groupings suggested that nonmeteorologists' mental representation of the diagram elements was primarily based upon domain-general, visuospatial characteristics, whereas in meteorologists' representations, these characteristics were subservient to a domain-specific, situational interpretation of the graphic array. The findings indicate that background knowledge deficiencies may make it difficult for learners beginning study of a domain to construct suitable mental representations from domain-related diagrams.

Lowe, R. K. (1996). "Background Knowledge and the Construction of a Situational Representation from a Diagram." European Journal of Psychology of Education 11(4): 377-397.
Abstract:
Shows that the construction of mental representations that capture a situation based on the comprehension of a diagram are mediated by the possession of appropriate background knowledge. Indicates that background knowledge deficiencies may make it difficult for beginning students of a domain to construct suitable mental representations from domain-related diagrams. (DSK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Lowe, R. (1993). "Using Visual Media Technologies To Investigate Cognitive Representation of Technical Diagrams."
Abstract:
This paper describes how visual media technologies have been used to support research into the way technical diagrams are represented in people's minds. Two groups of subjects participated in this research, individuals with either a high or a low level of expertise in meteorology, specifically professional meteorologists and non-meteorologists. Two general types of visual media technologies--computers and video--were used to investigate the mental representation of diagrams. Two main types of data were collected by the computer and video methodologies: (1) process data, the actions subjects perform as they work through a task; and (2) product data, the outcomes (drawings) of copying, recalling, or completing a weather map. Examples of the way process and product data were handled during analysis are presented. The strength of video technology is that it provides for the capture of highly detailed visual data. However, it also presents problems with the time-
consuming nature of transcribing the data into a form suitable for statistical analysis. In contrast, computer technology can directly monitor some aspects of a subject's performance and save the generated data in files that are suitable for statistical analysis, although it is not currently capable of directly providing (for reasonable cost and effort) the type of facilities for dealing with visual data that are available with video. Recent merging of the two technologies with the advent of digital video is opening up new possibilities for research. (Contains 15 references.) (AEF)


Notes:
In: Verbo-Visual Literacy: Understanding and Applying New Educational Communication Media Technologies. Selected Readings from the Symposium of the International Visual Literacy Association (Delphi, Greece, June 25-29, 1993); see IR 017 742.


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Luckie, D. C-Tools: Concept-map tools for online learning in science.
is a proposal

MacGregor, S. K. (1999). "Hypermedia Navigation Profiles: Cognitive Characteristics and Information Processing Strategies." Journal of Educational Computing Research 20(2): 189-206.
system design & prior knowledge & self regulation & need for cognition, learning through instructional hypermedia, 7th & 11th grade students
Abstract:
Explored the effects of system design and learner cognition on learning with hypermedia. Students from grades 7 and 11 were administered the Nowicki-Strickland Scale and the Need for Cognition Scale to obtain a selected group of 10 Ss providing a range of cognitive characteristics, including prior knowledge, self-regulation, and need for cognition. Ss were videotaped using a commercially produced instructional hypermedia system. Analysis of navigation logs revealed S differences regarding paths taken, type of nodes visited, time spent in each node, and think-aloud verbalizations. Three navigational profiles emerged, each with a distinct set of information processing strategies: the sequential studier, the video viewer, and the concept connector. Within each profile group, Ss had similar levels of prior knowledge, need for cognition, and self-efficacy. It is concluded that these 3 cognitive attributes significantly influenced navigational performance. Only some learners are able to take advantage of the non-linearity of the hypermedia format.

MacKay, N. (1997). "Constructivism and the logic of explanation." Journal of Constructivist Psychology 10: 339-361.
conceptual problems with abandonment of motivational concepts in constructivism as metatheory & cognitivist form of explanation
Abstract:
(journal abstract) The abandonment of motivational concepts in personal construct theory paves the way for the metatheoretical principles of constructivism: a cognitivist mode of explanation, a constructivist epistemology, a view of the person as autonomous agent, and an anti-realist ontology. Each of these is unsustainable. A nonmotivational and purely cognitive form of explanation is deficient, and dependence on the idea of voluntary agency to redress this deficiency results in explanatory regress. Both the constructivist theory of indirect knowledge (which is necessarily representationist) and the anti-realist ontology it entails are incoherent and self-defeating. Taken as a general metatheory, constructivism fails. However, constructivist theory and practice are of value when taken as a psychological approach that encourages self- reflection and tolerance and that examines the structures of knowledge and their role in the determination of action.

Mahler, S., R. Hoz, et al. (1991). "Didactic use of concept mapping in higher education: Applications in medical education." Instructional Science 20(1): 25-47.

Markham, K., J. Mintzes, et al. (1994). "The concept map as a research and evaluation tool: Further evidence of validity." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 31(1): 91-101.
concept maps, freshman vs upper division & graduate level biology
majors, implications for concurrent validity of concept mapping as research
evaluation tool in science education
Abstract: Examined the extent to which differences exist in the concept maps
(CMs) of 25 advanced college biology majors and 25 beginning nonmajors in the
domain of mammals. Furthermore, it explored whether these differences are
reflected in the way Ss assign class membership as revealed in a card sorting
task. Results indicate that CMs of biology majors were structurally more
complex than those of nonmajors and that differences in the structural
complexity and organizational patterns depicted in CMs were reflected in the
underlying dimensions used to assign class membership. Together, these
findings suggest that the CM provides a theoretically powerful and
psychometrically sound tool for assessing conceptual change in experimental
and classroom settings.

Markow, P. G. and R. A. Lonning (1998). "Usefulness of Concept Maps in College Chemistry Laboratories: Students' Perceptions and Effects on Achievement." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 35(9): 1015-1029.
Abstract:
Concept-map construction was tested as a means of increasing the conceptual learning of first-year, non-major college chemistry students (n=32). No significant differences between the control (essay-writing) and treatment (concept-map-constructing) groups were found on post-lab multiple-choice achievement tests. Interviews with students indicated positive attitudes toward concept mapping. Contains 36 references. (WRM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Marra, R. and D. Jonassen (2002). "Transfer effects of semantic networks on expert systems: Mindtools at work." Journal of Educational Computing Research 26(1): 1-23.

Martin, J., A. G. Slemon, et al. (1989). "Conceptualizations of novice and experienced counselors." Journal of Counseling Psychology 36: 395-400.

Martin, B. L., J. J. Mintzes, et al. (2000). "Restructuring Knowledge in Biology: Cognitive Processes and Metacognitive Reflections." International Journal of Science Education 22(3): 303-323.
Abstract:
Explores the successive and progressive changes in the structural complexity and propositional validity of knowledge held by students enrolled in an advanced undergraduate university-level biology course. Finds that in general, a significant amount of weak restructuring occurs and that the most radical type of strong restructuring occurs during the first six weeks of the course. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/WRM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Martin del Pozo, R. (2001). "Prospective Teachers' Ideas about the Relationships between Concepts Describing the Composition of Matter." International Journal of Science Education 23(4): 353-371.
Abstract:
Analyses the relationships between concepts describing the composition of matter that were proposed by a sample of prospective primary education teachers on a conceptual map. Content analysis shows that there are four equally representative categories. Describes the activities that were used with the prospective teachers concerning the relationships between these basic concepts. (Author/SAH)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Mashhadi, A. and B. Woolnough (1996). "Cognitive Mapping of Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics."
Abstract:
This paper presents findings from a study that investigated students' understanding of quantum phenomena and focused on how students incorporate the ideas of quantum physics into their overall cognitive framework. The heuristic metaphor of the map is used to construct graphic representations of students' understanding of quantum physics. The relationships between students' conceptions of quantum phenomena at the level of the population group are investigated using a structured questionnaire and multivariate analytical techniques such as multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and factor analysis. Groupings of conceptions are identified and related to underlying interpretable dimensions. Contains 30 references. (Author/DDR)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Singapore Educational Research Association (9th, Singapore, November 22-24, 1995).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Matricardi, G., R. Muratori, et al. (2000). "Science Education and Controversial Issues: A Case Study."
Abstract:
A constructivistic learning process was used with primary and secondary students in Genoa, Italy, to approach the problem of the diffusion of the alloctonous algae Caulerpa taxifolia in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Because of the lack of a continuous research program in Italy, the media played a heavy role in the transfer of information to the public, and an incomplete report by media personnel often caused great confusion in readers. To reach a self-made opinion about the Caulerpa case, students discussed all general information they could find. They observed that the opposite information often reported by the media prevented people from understanding the ecological problem and participating in its solution, but the group declared the scientists "must" know the answers to the problems produced by the exponential diffusion of the species. The learning process supported the disciplinary curriculum of the classes, allowing them to
experience the scientific method and to construct knowledge. Discussion of evidence of differences arising from comparison of scientific reprints and the media promoted an awareness learning. Analysis of the concept map prepared by secondary students and the theater script of primary ones verified the positive impact of the process on students' knowledge. Some basic ecological concepts were well understood. (Contains 21 references.) (YLB)


Notes:
In: Cross-Roads of the New Millennium. Proceedings of the Technological Education and National Development (TEND) Conference (2nd, April 8-10, 2000, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates); see CE 080 883.


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Mavers, D., B. Somekh, et al. (2002). "Interpreting the externalised images of pupils' conceptions of ICT: Methods for the analysis of concept maps." Computers & Education 38: 187-207.

Mayer, M. A. and J. M. Booker (1990). Eliciting and analyzing expert judgement. Washington DC, Division of Systems Research, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commision.

Mayer, R. (1997). "Multimedia learning: are we asking the right questions." Educational Psychologist 32(1): 1-19.
contiguity
issues in multimedia instruction & learning
Abstract:
Describes how to help students understand scientific explanations of cause-and-effect systems. The author reviews 8 studies concerning whether multimedia instruction is effective. Results show there was consistent evidence for a multimedia effect: Ss who received coordinated presentation of explanations in verbal and visual format generated a median of over 75% more creative solutions on problem-solving transfer tests than did Ss who received verbal explanations alone. In the author's review of 10 studies concerning when multimedia instruction is effective, there was consistent evidence for a contiguity effect: Ss generated a median of over 50% more creative solutions to transfer problems when verbal and visual explanations were coordinated than when they were not coordinated. Finally, in a review of 6 studies concerning for whom multimedia instruction is effective, Attribute * Treatment interactions indicated that multimedia and contiguity effects were strongest for low prior knowledge and high spatial ability Ss. Results are consistent with a generative theory of multimedia learning in which learners actively select, organize, and integrate verbal and visual information.

Mayfield, W. A., C. M. Kardash, et al. (1999). "Differences in Experienced and Novice Counselors' Knowledge Structures about Clients: Implications for Case Conceptualization." Journal of Counseling Psychology 46(4): 504-514.
Abstract:
Uses concept mapping tasks and association tasks to examine knowledge structures about clients. Four experienced and five novice counselors read a counseling transcript, categorized client statements, and mapped the relationships among categories. Results support the information-processing perspective with novice counselors attending to surface detail and requiring greater time to process information. (Author/GCP)


Publication type:
Guides-Information analysis (070); Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

McAleese, R. "Coming to know: The role of the concept map - mirror, assistant, master."

McAleese, R. (1999). "Concept mapping - A critical review." Innovations in Education and Training International 36(4): 351-363.

McAleese, R. (1987). "The graphical representation of knowledge as an interface to knowledge based systems." Human-Computer Interation INTERACT '87: 1089-1093.

McAleese, R. (1998). "The knowledge arena as an extension to the concept map: Reflection in action." Interactive Learning Environments 6: 1-22.

McAleese, R. (1994). "A theoretical view on concept mapping." ALT-J Association for Learning Technology) 2(1): 38-48.

McCagg, E. and D. Dansereau (1991). "A convergent paradigm for examining knowledge mapping as a learning strategy." Journal if Educational Research 84(6): 317-324.
student generated knowledge maps as learning strategy, recognition & recall, college students
Abstract:
Used a paradigm that coupled an ecologically valid assessment with an extended testing session to examine the effects of student-generated knowledge maps as a learning strategy. The effects of mapping were first examined in the context of an ongoing general psychology course. 81 undergraduates participated in an out-of- class testing session intended to replicate and extend the results obtained in the classroom. Mapping positively affected Ss' performance on both recognition and recall tests. The effects of mapping appeared to be robust, for they were maintained over time and dependent measures.

McClafferty, K. and A. J. Artiles (1998). "Learning To Teach Culturally Diverse Learners: Charting Change in Preservice Teachers' Thinking about Effective Teaching." Elementary School Journal 98(3): 189-220.
Abstract:
Used concept maps and surveys to assess the effects of a multicultural education course on preservice teachers' cognitions. Found that Group B students' conceptualizations of effective teaching increased after the course, but other indicators showed that they did not actively reorganize their reconceptualization. Group A students exhibited the opposite pattern. Each group emphasized a distinct view of teaching. (Author)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

McClure, J., B. Sonak, et al. (1999). "Concept map assessment of classroom learning: reliability, validity and logistical practicality." Journal of research in science teaching 36(4): 475-492.
The psychometric characteristics and practicality of concept
mapping as a technique for classroom assessment were evaluated. 63 Ss
received 90 min of training in concept mapping techniques and were given a
list of terms and asked to produce a concept map. The list of terms was from
a course in which they were enrolled. The maps were scored by pairs of
graduate students, each pair using 1 of 6 different scoring methods. The
score reliability of the 6 scoring methods ranged from r = .23 to r = .76.
The highest score reliability was found for the method based on the
evaluation of separate propositions represented. Correlations of map scores
with a measure of the concept maps' similarity to a master map provided
evidence supporting the validity of 5 of the 6 scoring methods. The times
required to provide training in concept mapping, produce concepts, and score
concept maps were compatible with the adoption of concept mapping as
classroom assessment technique.

McClure, J. (1999). Concept maps and the acquisition of cognitive skillls: Concept maps as a tool to study skill acquisition. AERA.

McClure, J. R. (1999). Concept maps and the acquisition of cognitive skills: concept maps as a tool to study skill acquisition. American Educational Research Association.

McDonald, B. A. and I. H. Witten (1989). "A framework for knowledge acquisition through techniques of concept learning." IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 19(3): 499-511.

McDonald, S. and R. Stevenson (1998). "Navigation in hyperspace: an evaluation of the effects of navigational tools and subject matter expertise on browsing and information retrieval in hypertext." Interacting with Computers 10: 129-142.
navigational tools, browsing & information retrieval in hypertext, adults with vs without subject matter expertise
Abstract:
Examined the effectiveness of a map and a textual contents list on the navigation performance of 36 Ss with and without prior knowledge of the text topic. After reading the text, Ss used the document to answer 10 questions. The results show that performance in the map condition was superior to that of the contents list condition, which in turn was superior to that of the hypertext only condition (no navigational aid). Knowledgeable Ss performed better than non-knowledgeable Ss, except in the map condition where their performance was equivalent. The results also show that non-knowledgeable Ss tend to rely more heavily on navigational aids than knowledgeable Ss, and that aids were used primarily during browsing. The results are discussed in relation to the ways in which navigational aids interact with the prior knowledge of the user to enhance or impede performance.
((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)

McDonald, S. and R. J. Stevenson (1998). "Navigation in hyperspace: An evaluation of the effects of navigational tools and subject matter expertise on browsing and information retrieval in hypertext." Interacting with Computers 10(2): 129-142.

Abstract:
Examined the effectiveness of a map and a textual contents list on the navigation performance of 36 Ss with and without prior knowledge of the text topic. After reading the text, Ss used the document to answer 10 questions. The results show that performance in the map condition was superior to that of the contents list condition, which in turn was superior to that of the hypertext only condition (no navigational aid). Knowledgeable Ss performed better than non-knowledgeable Ss, except in the map condition where their performance was equivalent. The results also show that non-knowledgeable Ss tend to rely more heavily on navigational aids than knowledgeable Ss, and that aids were used primarily during browsing. The results are discussed in relation to the ways in which navigational aids interact with the prior knowledge of the user to enhance or impede performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Population:
10 Human
Age group:
300 Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Location:
England
Classification code:
2700 Communication Systems
Document type:
dt250 Journal Article
Form/content:
0800 Empirical Study

McDonald, S. and R. Stevenson (1999). "Spatial versus conceptual maps as learning tools in hypertext." Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 8(1): 43-64.
Abstract:
Describes two studies of college students that examined the effects of navigational aids on navigation and learning in hypertext. The first examined the effects of spatial maps and textual contents lists on students' ability to locate information; the second experiment compared a spatial map, a conceptual map and no aid on both navigation and learning. (Author/LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

McGaghie, W. C. (1996). "Comparison of Knowledge Structures with the Pathfinder Scaling Algorithm."

Abstract:
The cognitive structure of 13 concepts in pulmonary physiology was explored among 112 first-year medical students and among 32 faculty members in three different expertise groups in a knowledge representation study. Purposes were to assess the degree of agreement among faculty members, map students' concept structures, and compare the similarity of student concepts with those of instructors. It was hypothesized that, as a consequence of instruction, students' concept networks would approximate the structure of concept networks produced by faculty experts. The Pathfinder scaling algorithm was used to map and compare student and faculty concept structures. Pathfinder uses pairwise judgments of similarity between a set of concepts to produce a network or graph and to focus on the local relationships among concepts, in contrast to multidimensional scaling, which seems to capture more global information about the concept space. Data show
that the ways in which medical experts conceptually organized the concepts were not necessarily consistent. Similarity ratings for the three expert groups (internists, anesthesiologists, and physiologists) were modest, and comparisons between groups were weaker than comparisons within groups. Data do support the hypothesis that students' Pathfinder networks would begin to approximate the structure of the concept networks produced by faculty as a consequence of instruction, although the choice of which faculty network is best remains uncertain. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure, and 19 references.) (SLD)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8- 12, 1996).

McGinn, M. K. and W.-M. Roth (1998). " Assessing Students' Understanding about Levers: Better Test Instruments Are Not Enough." nternational Journal of Science Education 20(7): 813-832.
Abstract:
Investigates variations in students' responses to lever problems across multiple assessment contexts and formats. Data sources include students' semantic maps, written responses to questions, and modeled solutions to practical problems. Contains 40 references. (DDR)

McGregor, S. K. (1999). "Hypermedia navigation profiles: Cognitive characteristics and information processing strategies." Journal of Educational Computing Research 20(2): 189-206.
system design & prior knowledge & self regulation & need for cognition, learning through instructional hypermedia, 7th & 11th grade students
Abstract:
Explored the effects of system design and learner cognition on learning with hypermedia. Students from grades 7 and 11 were administered the Nowicki-Strickland Scale and the Need for Cognition Scale to obtain a selected group of 10 Ss providing a range of cognitive characteristics, including prior knowledge, self-regulation, and need for cognition. Ss were videotaped using a commercially produced instructional hypermedia system. Analysis of navigation logs revealed S differences regarding paths taken, type of nodes visited, time spent in each node, and think-aloud verbalizations. Three navigational profiles emerged, each with a distinct set of information processing strategies: the sequential studier, the video viewer, and the concept connector. Within each profile group, Ss had similar levels of prior knowledge, need for cognition, and self-efficacy. It is concluded that these 3 cognitive attributes significantly influenced navigational performance. Only some learners are able to take advantage of the non-linearity of the hypermedia format.

McIntosh, A. (1995). "Conceptual Teaching + Semantic Mapping = Discovering Connections." Perspectives in Education and Deafness 14(1): 16-17.
Abstract:
Discusses how semantic mapping can be used in educating students who are deaf or hard of hearing by making important concepts visual and by helping students find connections among ideas and subject areas. Examples are given of how semantic mapping can be used to teach science and mathematics. (CR)


Publication type:
Guides-Non-classroom use (053); Guides-Journal articles (080)

McKeithen, K. B., J. S. Reitman, et al. (1981). "Knowledge organization and skill differences in computer programmers." Cognitive Psychology 13: 307-325.

McKeown, D. M. (1983). Concept maps. Pittsburgh, PA, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University.

McNaught, C. and D. Kennedy (1997). "Use of Concept Mapping in the Design of Learning Tools for Interactive Multimedia." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3-4): 389-406.
Abstract:
Describes the use of concept mapping as a tool to gather data about student misconceptions. Student concept maps are used to inform the design/development of an innovative, simple-to-use, computer-based learning tool which may be incorporated into online courseware. The interactive grouping tool is designed to allow students to construct their own understanding of the relation between dynamic time-based variables. (Author/AEF)


Notes:
Theme issue: "Concept Mapping."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

McNeese, M., B. Zaff, et al. (1990). An advanced knowledge and design acquisition methodology: Application for the pilot's associate (U), Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Human Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

McNeese, M., B. Zaff, et al. (1995). "AKADAM: Eliciting user knowledge to support participatory ergonomics." International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 15: 345-363.

McNeese, M., B. Zaff, et al. (1993). Understanding the context of multidisciplinary design: Establishing ecological validity in the study of design problem solving. 37th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, Human Factors Society, Santa Monica, CA.

Mehta, S. and B. Henderson (1996). " Exploring Notions of Schooling: Using Concept Maps for a High School Integrated Curriculum Programme Assessment." Pathways: The Ontario Journal of Outdoor Education 8(4): 11-17.
Abstract:
Concept mapping, a student-driven assessment tool, is used to compare student attitudes toward conventional school and the Community Environmental Leadership Programme (CELP), an integrated outdoor semester for 11th graders that develops community skills, environmental awareness, leadership, and responsibility. Although pre-CELP concept maps reflected cross-spectrum negativity, post-CELP maps reflected a sense of promise and empowerment. (TD)


Publication type:
Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Michael, E. and M. E. Martinez (in press). Cognitive representations: Distinctions, implications and elaborations. The Development of Representational Thought: Theoretical Perspectives. I. Sigel. Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum.

Miholic, V. (1990). "Constructing a Semantic Map for Textbooks (Open to Suggestion)." Journal of Reading 33(6): 464-465.
Abstract:
Describes a brainstorming/conceptualization activity suitable for adult, secondary, and college levels which serves as a preliminary exercise to test students' prior knowledge and to activate a schema for deeper immersion into a text. Describes how students use the activities to construct a sentence which defines the purpose of their textbook. (RS)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Guides-Teaching (052)

Milam, J. H., Jr., S. A. Santo, et al. (2000). Concept Maps for Web-Based Applications. ERIC Technical Report. Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research (40th, Cincinnati, OH, May 21-24, 2000).
Abstract:
This study examined the use of concept maps for Web-based applications in higher education. The purpose of the project was to design concept maps that could serve as prototypes for navigating and searching Internet resources. It also explored the value of concept mapping as a method of bibliographic retrieval for the ERIC database. Following an extensive literature review, the study compared competing methodologies for developing concept maps; analyzed primary ideas about concept maps; described procedures for developing maps; discussed assumptions about what makes good concept maps for facilitating Internet and print navigation; identified and tested software for developing concept maps; and examined navigation issues for utilizing concept maps. Results suggest concept maps are becoming more widespread in their application to various purposes; software packages have changed significantly since the advent of the Web but none of the software evaluated offered
all the necessary features. While concept maps may be quickly created, the resulting maps may not adequately map the knowledge base. Concept maps have much to offer the ERIC system, and a hybrid mix of existing, inexpensive tools may be useful to leverage technology and provide a new user interface. An annotated bibliography is included. (Contains 24 references.) (SM)


Notes:
Paper presented at theFunded through a pass-through contract from George Washington University to UVa.

Mintzes, J. J., J. H. Wandersee, et al. (2000). Assessing Science Understanding: A Human Constructivist View. San Diego, Academic Press.

Mintzes, J. J., J. H. Wandersee, et al. (2001). "Assessing Understanding in Biology." Journal of Biological Education 35(3): 118-124.
Abstract:
Discusses several new assessment strategies that encourage meaningful learning and conceptual understanding in biological science. Introduces evaluation and measurement techniques that help students assimilate well- integrated, strongly cohesive frameworks of interrelated concepts as a way of facilitating 'real understanding' of natural phenomena. (Contains 20 references.) (Author/YDS)

Mintzes, J. J., J. H. Wandersee, et al. (1997). Meaningful learning in science: The human constructivist perspective. Handbook of academic learning:
Construction of knowledge. The educational psychology series
. G. D. Phye, Ed; et al. San Diego, Academic Press, Inc: 405-447.
(chapter) <focus> on studies that support a new synthesis of
learning theory, epistemology and philosophy of science / the new synthesis,
which has been dubbed human constructivism . . . , provides a useful
framework for understanding why instruction often fails and why we need to
focus on conceptual change by helping students learn how to learn in science
/// classroom learning in science / research in science learning: the context
of metacognition <understanding concepts in the natural sciences ("ascertain
this"), conceptual change in the natural sciences ("and teach him
accordingly")> / the practice of science teaching: how meta-cognitive
strategies can help <the importance of concept mapping, characteristics of
concept maps, constructing a concept map, micromaps and macromaps,
difficulties in learning concept mapping, research on concept mapping, other
metacognitive tools in science teaching>

Mintzes, J. J., J. H. Wandersee, et al. (1998). Teaching Science for Understanding: A Human Constructivist View. San Diego, Academic Press.

Moen, E. M. J. C. and K. T. Boersma (1997). "The Significance of Concept Mapping for Education and Curriculum Development." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3-4): 487-502.
Abstract:
Explores the significance of concept mapping for education and curriculum development. Discusses two main streams in curriculum paradigms and important processes, and the functions which concept mapping can have in education and curriculum development. Examines why students in educational institutions don't yet make systematic use of concept maps, and rules which lead to effective use of concept maps/mapping. (AEF)


Notes:
Theme issue: "Concept Mapping."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142)

Moore, P. a. S., J. (1994). Systematic forced processing of text and graphics. Comprehension of Graphics. W. a. K. Schnotz, W., Elsevier Science.

Moreland, J. L., D. F. Dansereau, et al. (1997). "Recall of descriptive information: The roles of presentation format, annotation strategy, and individual differences." Contemporary Educational Psychology 22(4): 521-533.
Examined the benefits of using a comprehensive annotation strategy (employing underlining/circling, making connections, asking questions, and making comments) with knowledge maps (spatial/verbal arrays) and traditional, linear text to improve free recall scores for learners with individual differences in vocabulary and comprehension ability. 73 undergraduate students participated in the study. Types and frequencies of annotations generated were also examined for each stimulus format condition. Multiple regression analyses indicate that the frequency of use of 2 component annotation strategies, asking questions and making connections, were significant predictors of recall scores, while frequency of underlining/circling and generating elaborations failed to predict recall scores. Text users generated more underlining/circling, while knowledge map users generated more connections between ideas, suggesting that knowledge maps may facilitate the application of more productive annotation strategies. Also examined were the interrelationships between vocabulary ability, comprehension ability, and free recall scores.

Morine-Dershimer, G. (1993). "Tracing Conceptual Change in Preservice Teachers." Teaching and Teacher Education 9(1): 15-26.
Abstract:
Reports on a study that examined changes, measured by pre- and postconcept maps, in preservice teachers' conceptions of teacher planning associated with a year-long general methods course. Conceptions on premaps differed by certification level. Conceptions on postmaps differed by course instructor. Qualitative shifts in responses are also noted. (SM)
Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Mulholland, P., Z. Zdrahal, et al. (2001). "A methodological approach to supporting organizational learning." International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 55: 337-367.

Murphy, L. and H. Suen (1999). Validating measures of structural knowledge through the multitrait-multimethod matrix. American Educational Research Association, Montreal.

Nakhleh, M. B. (1994). "Chemical Education Research in the Laboratory Environment: How Can Research Uncover What Students Are Learning?" Journal of Chemical Education 71(3): 201-205.

Abstract:
Discusses appropriate methodologies for investigating how learning occurs in the laboratory. Presents two techniques, concept mapping and V-diagramming, which can be effective research tools in probing students' understanding of chemical principles. These techniques can also be effective instructional tools that help students integrate lecture knowledge with laboratory observations. (PVD)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Nakhleh, M. B. and J. S. Krajcik (1991). "The Effect of Level of Information as Presented by Different Technologies on Students' Understanding of Acid, Base, and pH Concepts."
Abstract:
Within high school chemistry the topic of acids, bases, and pH is particularly challenging because robust understanding of the topic depends heavily on the student possessing deep concepts of atoms, molecules, ions, and chemical reactions. Since knowledge is acquired and stored in a dynamic structure, it was investigated in this study how knowledge changed as a result of the student's exposure to a particular type of learning task. Two areas of interest were targeted: the change in the students' understanding of acids, bases, and pH over the course of the treatment and the type of thought processes in which the students engaged while performing the treatment tasks. These understandings and thought processes were followed as a function of three levels of information presented by the technology: low level as represented by the use of chemical indicator solutions, intermediate level as represented by the use of a pH meter, and high level as
represented by the use of a microcomputer-interfaced electronic pH probe. Reported in this paper are students' understandings prior to and after interacting with these technologies. Verbal data and drawings obtained in clinical interviews were used to construct concept maps and to analyze students' molecular concepts. Experts were also interviewed, and their concept maps were analyzed to identify critical nodes on their understanding of acids, bases, and pH. The concept maps and drawings were analyzed and two general conclusions reached: (1) students using microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) activities appeared to construct more powerful and more meaningful chemical concepts; (2) the microcomputer group's high rates of both erroneous and acceptable links provide evidence that these students were positively engaged in restructuring their chemical knowledge. MBL appears to help students develop deeper understanding of acids, bases, and pH
concepts, as indicated by the concept maps showing more detailed differentiation and integration. Examples of student's and expert's concept maps are appended. (KR)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (Lake Geneva, WI, April 7-10, 1991).


Publication type:
Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Nash, J. G., L. J. Liotta, et al. (2000). "Measuring Conceptual Change in Organic Chemistry." Journal of Chemical Education 77(3): 333-337.
Abstract:
Describes a study that used the ordered-tree technique to investigate knowledge change across the first semester of a college course in organic chemistry. Finds that over the course of the semester, students' knowledge trees became more similar to those of their professors. Discusses possible assessment uses for the ordered-tree technique. (Contains 22 references.) (WRM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Nason, R. and A. Others (1996). "Format-Free Databases and the Construction of Knowledge in Primary School Science Projects." Research in Science Education 26(3): 353-373.
Abstract:
Reports on a study in which a teacher used the collaborative development of a format-free computer database to facilitate the construction of knowledge by a group of students (n=3) during a science project. Results indicate that knowledge construction is enhanced when children collaboratively develop a format-free database. Contains 27 references. (DDR)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Newbern, D., D. F. Dansereau, et al. (1997). "Spatial-semantic display processing: The role of spatial structure on recall." Contemporary Educational Psychology 22(3): 319-337.
Tested a model of spatial-semantic display processing by comparing the aided and unaided recall of information presented in a node-link format (knowledge map) to the aided and unaided recall of information presented in a text format. Structural icons of the knowledge map and text with the verbiage removed were used to aid retrieval in some conditions. 182 college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 groups formed by the complete crossing of 3 factors: knowledge map vs text, structural icon at recall vs no structural icon at recall, and immediate vs delayed recall. Knowledge map groups outperformed text groups on essay tests and they more accurately remembered where information was located within the materials. Both knowledge map and text icon-aided recall groups had significantly better performance than the no icon, unaided recall groups (particularly on main ideas).

Nicholson, P. and R. Johnson (1999). "MetaMaps: Assessing understanding of large, complex or distributed knowledge domains." Education and Information Technologies 4(3): 297-312.

Nicoll, G., J. Francisco, et al. (2001). "An Investigation of the Value of Using Concept Maps in General Chemistry." Journal of Chemical Education 78(8): 1111-1117.
Abstract:
Reports on a qualitative investigation of the effects of integrating concept maps into freshman-level general chemistry curriculum. Indicates that students in the experimental section had significantly more links and nodes in their concept maps than students in the traditional section. There were no significant differences between the two sections in terms of students' GPAs or years of high school chemistry. (Contains 20 references.) (ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Nicoll, G., J. Francisco, et al. (2001). "A Three-Tier System for Assessing Concept Map Links: A Methodological Study." International Journal of Science Education 23(8): 863-875.
Abstract:
Describes a novel method for analyzing concept maps for research and analysis purposes. Examines 56 complex concept maps generated from student interviews on the topic of chemical bonding. (Contains 32 references.) (Author/YDS)

Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Nilsson, R. and R. Mayer (2002). "The effects of graphic organizers giving cues to the structure of a hypertext document on users' navigation strategies and performance." International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 57: 1-26.

Nilsson, R. M. and R. E. Mayer (2002). "The effects of graphic organizers giving cues to the structure of a hypertext document on users' navigation strategies and performance." International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 57(1): 1-26.
Abstract:
Two experiments examined the effects of graphical organizers on users' navigation of a 150-page hierarchical website of aquatic animals. In Experiment 1, 53 users were given either a non-clickable map (map group) or no map (no-map group) and answered 30 questions by searching the website. The map group was more efficient (visited fewer pages) on the first 20 questions (learning phase) but the no-map group was marginally more efficient on the last 10 questions (test phase), and displayed more flexible search strategies. In Experiment 2, 55 users were either given a simplified organizer locating the current page in the website (explicit group) or an alphabetized list of superordinate pages (implicit group). The task from Experiment 1 was repeated. No differences in efficiency were found, but the explicit group was faster than the implicit group in the test phase. The results depended on individual differences in spatial skills. These results suggest a
tradeoff between organizers that are useful initially and those that promote structural learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)


Population:
10 Human
30 Male
40 Female


Age group:
300 Adulthood (18 yrs & older)


Location:
US


Classification code:
4000 Engineering & Environmental Psychology


Document type:
dt250 Journal Article


Form/content:
0800 Empirical Study

Noble, D. (1989). "Schema-based knowledge elicitation for planning and situation assessment aids." IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 19(3): 473-482.

Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Lab. at Brown Univ., P., RI. (2000). "School Matters: Mapping for Reflecting and Planning."
FOUND IN ERIC microfiche
unless noted otherwise:
EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.


Abstract:
This report describes how schools can draw on multiple voices to create a comprehensive portrait of important events in a school's history. In this "mapping" process, participants create a map that portrays the collective history of the school, facilitating an increased awareness of past actions and their connection to current conditions. Participants include teachers, administrators, parents, support staff, district staff, and community members who know the history of the school but who may have different perspective on that history. The document outlines what materials are needed and offers an overview of how schools have used the mapping process, such as site-based management teams' identification of priorities and schoolwide long-range planning. The process is described in two stages. Stage 1 introduces the concept and offers tips for guiding the discussion and encouraging participants to share their personal information. Stage 2 asks participants to
relay what they see emerging from the map, such as any patterns or trends, and asks participants to share the implications of the emerging history. The document suggests some discussion topics (contexts to maintain, organization, and teaching and learning) and offers tips on room set-up and organizing the group. (RJM)


Publication type:
Guides-Non-classroom use (053)

Nosek, J. T. and I. Roth (1990). "A comparison of formal knowledge representation schemes as communication tools: Predicate logic versus semantic networks." International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 33: 227-239.

Nosek, J. T. and M. McNeese (1997). "Issues for Knowledge Management from Experiences in Supporting Group Knowledge Elicitation and Creation in Ill-defined Emerging Situations." 1997.

Novak, J. (1979). "Applying psychology and philosophy to the improvement of laboratory teaching." American Biology Teacher 41(8): 466-470.
Models, based on Gowin's Epistomenological V model, are presented which are intended to be useful in illustrating ideas to students about how knowledge is acquired and how to relate laboratory work to the concept being learned. (SA)

Novak, J. and D. Ridley (1988). Assessing student learning in light of how students learn. American Association for Higher Education Forum, ERIC Document ED299923.

Novak, J. (1991). "Ayudar a los alumnos a aprendar como aprendar: la opinion de un profesor-investigador." Ensenanza de Las Ciencias 9(3): 215-228.

Novak, J. D. (1991). "Clarify with concept maps: A tool for students and teachers alike." The Science Teacher 58: 45-49.

Novak, J. D. and D. Symington (1982). "Concept mapping for curriculum development." V.I.E.R. (The Victorian Institute of Educational Research) 48: 3-11.

Novak, J. (1995). "Concept mapping to facilitate teaching and learning." Prospects 25(1): 79-86.

Novak, J. D. (1995). Concept mapping: A strategy for organizing knowledge. Learning science in the schools: Research reforming practice. S. M. Glynn and R. e. a. Duit. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc,
Mahwah, NJ, USA: 229-245.
chapter) concept maps are tools for <students in> organizing and
representing knowledge / they include concepts, usually enclosed in circles
or boxes of some type, and relationships between concepts or propositions,
indicated by a connecting line between 2 concepts / define concept as a
perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects,
designated by a label / <suggest> it is best to construct concept maps with
reference to some particular situation or event that we are trying to
understand through the organization of knowledge in the form of a concept map
/// epistemological foundations / constructing good concept maps / macro and
micro concept maps / facilitating cooperative learning

Novak, J. (1990). "Concept mapping: A useful tool for science education." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 937-949.

Novak, J. D. (1990). "Concept maps and Vee diagrams: Two metacognitive tools for science and mathematics education." Instructional Science 19: 29-52.

Novak, J. (1990). "Concept maps and Vee diagrams: Two metacognitve tools to facilitate meaningful learning." Instructional Science 19: 29-52.
concept maps & Vee diagrams, metacognitive learning in 1st grade through college
Abstract:
Reviewed research on concept mapping and Vee diagraming from Grade 1 through university. Metacognitive learning occurs whenever a person acquires some general strategy that facilitates learning or understanding of knowledge. Concept maps are a representation of meaning or ideational frameworks specific to a domain of knowledge. Vee diagrams represent the structure of knowledge and the structural elements of new knowledge construction. Skill in using these tools takes time and overcoming ingrained habits of primarily rote-mode learning may be difficult. Rote-mode learning may be responsible for the underrepresentation of women in the sciences since females tend to play the "school game" more conscientiously. When meaningful learning was facilitated by concept maps, student anxiety levels decreased and attitudes improved.

Novak, J. "Criteria for Good Concept Maps."

Novak, J. (1989). Helping Students Learn How to Learn: A View from a Teacher-Researcher. Third Congress on Research and Teaching of Science and Mathematics, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Novak, J. (1993). "How do we learn our lesson." The Science Teacher 60(3): 51-55.

Novak, J. (1993). "Human constructivism: A unification of psychological and epistemological phenomena in meaning making." International Journal of Personal Construct Psychology 6: 167-193.

Novak, J. (1986). "The importance of emerging constructivist epistemology for mathematics education." Journal of Mathematical Behavior 5(2): 181-184.

Novak, J. "Introduction to Concept Mapping."

Novak, J. D. and D. B. Gowin (1984). Learning how to learn. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Novak, J. D. (1998). Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps(R) as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahweh, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
This volume is organized around 5 factors involved in every
educational event: The learner, teacher, knowledge, context, and evaluation.
Each is discussed from both theoretical and pragmatic perspectives. Concept
maps are used to illustrate key ideas from learning theory, theory of
knowledge, and instructional theory, as well as to give concrete examples.
Rote learning, still common in many schools and universities today, is shown
to be ineffective for achieving the goals of individuals and society in an
era when creative production of new knowledge is at a premium. Effective
management is shown to be dependent on the same factors as effective
teaching. This book is intended for use by educators at all levels and
corporate managers who seek to enhance productivity.

Novak, J. D. and R. Iuli (1995). Meaningful learning as the foundation for constructivist epistemology. Proceedings of the Third International History, Philosophy and Science Teaching Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

Novak, J. (2002). "Meaningful learning: The essential factor for conceptual change in limited or inappropriate propositional hierarchies leading to empowerment of learners." Science Education 86: 548-571.

Novak, J. D. and J. H. Wandersee, Eds. (1990). Special Issue on Concept Mapping. Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Novak, J. D. (1977). A theory of education. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press.

Novak, J. (??). "The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct them."

Novak, J. D. and D. Musonda (1991). "A twelve-year longitudinal study of science concept learning." American Educational Research Journal 28(1): 117-153.

Novak, J. D., D. B. Gowin, et al. (1983). "The use of concept mapping and knowledge Vee mapping with junior high school science students." Science Education 67(5): 625-645.

Novak, J. (2000). The use of concept maps in schools and corporations to facilitate learning, creating and using knowledge (part of symposium). AERA, New Orleans.

Novak, J. (1994). "A view on the current status of Ausubel's assimilation theory of learning or La teoria dell appendimento per assimilaziona di D.P. Ausubel. De propsettive attuali." CADMO (Giornale Italiono di Pedagogia sperimentale, Didattica Docimologia, Tecnologia dell Instrusione) 2(4): 7-23.

Novick, L., S. Hurley, et al. (1999). "Evidence for abstract, schematic knowledge of three spatial diagram representations." Memory and Cogntiion 27(2): 288-308.

Noyd, R. K. (1998). "A Primer on Concept Maps." USAFA Educator, Volume VII, Issue 1, Fall 1998. 7(1).
Abstract:
Concept maps are diagrams that show students how content is structured. This article asserts that they can be effective teaching and learning tools. It presents one method of concept mapping and several ways it can be used in the classroom. (EV)


Publication type:
Guides-Non-classroom use (053); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Noyons, E. C. M. and A. F. J. van Raan (1998). "Monitoring Scientific Developments from a Dynamic Perspective: Self-Organized Structuring To Map Neural Network Research." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49(1): 68-81.
Abstract:
Using bibliometric mapping techniques, authors developed a methodology of self-organized structuring of scientific fields which was applied to neural network research. Explores the evolution of a data generated field structure by monitoring the interrelationships between subfields, the internal structure of subfields, and the dynamic features of the entire research field. (PEN)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Odom, A. L. and P. V. Kelly (1998). "Making Learning Meaningful." Science Teacher 65(4): 33-37.
Abstract:
Discusses two theories of cognitive development, Ausubel's theory of verbal learning and Piaget's development theory. Illustrates that both concept mapping and the learning cycle are rooted in these two theories. (DDR)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

O'Donnell, A. M. and D. F. Dansereau (2000). "Interactive Effects of Prior Knowledge and Material Format on Cooperative Teaching." Journal of Experimental Education 68(2): 101-118.
Abstract:
Determined the separate and combined effects of knowledge maps or texts and teaching props (overview maps or outlines) on the learning of two different sets of material in the context of cooperative teaching. Results from 102 undergraduates show that the effects of format of study materials or communication props depend on the prior knowledge of participants. (SLD)
Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

O'Donnell, A., D. Dansereau, et al. (2002). "Knowledge maps as scaffolds for cognitive processing." Educational Psychology Review.

O'Donnell, A. (1994). "Learning from knowledge maps: The effects of map orientation." Contemporary Educational Psychology 19: 33-44.
learning from vertically vs horizontally oriented knowledge maps of text, college students with high vs low vocabulary skills
Abstract:
Randomly assigned 28 undergraduates to study from knowledge maps presented vertically (top to bottom) or horizontally (from left to right). Ss were then asked to answer a series of questions about the studied materials. The performance of high and low vocabulary participants in the 2 experimental groups was evaluated. Questions involved 5 different kinds of information: declarative, bottom-up, negative, integration, and inference. Performance on the different types of questions was not uniform. Low vocabulary students using vertically organized maps performed as well as their high vocabulary counterparts. In contrast, low vocabulary students who used horizontally organized maps performed very poorly on almost all measures.

O'Donnell, A. (1993). "Searching for information in knowledge maps and texts." Contempory Educational Psychology 18: 222-239.
knowledge map vs text format of information & prior knowledge &
vocabulary, visual information search processes, college students
Abstract: Examined the efficacy of knowledge maps (KMs) or text presentations
of information in facilitating the search for information, the influence of
prior knowledge and vocabulary level on the search for information, and
whether these variables differentially affect the search for different kinds
of information. 137 undergraduates were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups.
Groups 1 and 2 heard a lecture on target information for the experiment.
Group 1 searched for different kinds of information in KMs whereas Group 2
searched texts. Groups 3 and 4 were identical to Groups 1 and 2, except
members listened to a lecture on information that was irrelevant to the
target information. KMs facilitated the search for information that was
directly accessible. Also, Ss with high prior knowledge outperformed Ss with
low prior knowledge. The type of information sought influenced the effects of
material format and searcher characteristics on the efficacy of search.

Okebukola, P. A. (1990). "Attaining meaningful learning of concepts in genetics and ecology: An examination of the potency of the concept-mapping technique." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(5): 493-504.
Abstract:
(unassigned) Examined the efficacy of the concept-mapping strategy in 138 students (aged 15 yrs, 8 mo-21 yrs, 7 mo). Ss received instruction in both genetics and ecology: 63 Ss drew concept maps based on these lessons (experimental group) and 75 Ss did not (controls). All Ss were tested for learning in both subjects. Experimental Ss performed significantly better on the test of learning in genetics, and ecology, than their control group counterparts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Okebukola, P. A. (1992). "Can good concept mappers be good problem solvers in science?" Educational Psychology 12(2): 113-129.
Okebukola, P. A. (1992). Can good concept mappers be good problem solvers in science? Educational Psychology, 12(2), 113-129.

Abstract: (unassigned) 23 male and 17 female undergraduates who experienced cooperative and individualistic concept mapping experiences for 6 mo and were adjudged to be good concept mappers were significantly more successful in solving 3 biology problems than were 20 undergraduates who served as controls. Written and think-aloud procedures and interviews were conducted as part of the administration of the Biology Problem Solving Test. Gender differences emerged in the ability to solve specific problems. No significant difference was found between students who mapped concepts cooperatively and those who mapped individually. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Okebukola, P. A. and O. J. Jegede (1988). "Cognitive preference and learning mode as determinants of meaningful learning through concept mapping." Science Education 72(4): 489-500.

O'Neil, H. F. J. (1999). Computer-based collaborative knowledge mapping to measure team processes and team outcomes. Los Angeles, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Testing.

O'Neil, H. F., Jr. and D. C. D. Klein (1997). Feasibility of Machine Scoring of Concept Maps., Feasibility of Machine Scoring of Concept Maps
Harold F. O'Neil, Jr. and Davina C. D. Klein
CSE Technical Report 460, 1997 ($3.50) Summary.
Abstract:
This report documents progress at the Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) on the feasibility of scoring concept maps using technology. CRESST, in its integrated simulation approach to assessment, has assembled a suite of performance assessment tasks (the integrated simulation) onto which they have mapped the types of learning expected of students. One element of the integrated simulation is an online concept mapping construction and scoring system. A concept map is a graphical representation of information consisting of nodes and labeled lines. The nodes correspond to concepts in a subject area or domain, and lines indicate a relationship between pairs of concepts. Concept mapping software has been developed to permit students to construct concept maps and to provide real-time scoring and feedback to students based on an expert's map. An expert criterion map is used to score students' concept maps. CRESST
has also studied the viability of using collaborative concept mapping in a networked computer environment as an assessment tool. Ongoing research suggests that both types of concept map use are promising. A feasible solution for schools without extensive computer resources is suggested through computerized scoring of paper- and-pencil administered concept maps. Several technologies for this purpose that CRESST has explored are described. (Contains 2 tables, 3 figures, and 12 references.) (SLD)


Publication type:
Guides-Statistical data (numeric, quantitative, etc.)(110)

O'Neil, H. a. A., J. (1996). Reliability and validity of a state metacognitive inventory: Potential for alternative assessment. Los Angeles, CA, CRESST: 1-27.

Osman-Jouchoux, R. (1997). " Linking Reading and Writing: Concept Mapping as an Organizing Tactic."

Abstract:
Writers often must summarize others' texts as part of their own work. To succeed at this, they must first read and understand new information and then transform that information to fulfill a specific purpose. Concept mapping, used as a visual organizing technique, can be an effective link between the two processes. In a preliminary study, students in an undergraduate technical writing class were given a three-part, paper-based module on summarizing texts. Each part introduced the concepts of metacognitive reading strategy (defining the task, monitoring understanding, mentally organizing the material), summarizing strategy (selecting material to include, formulating topic sentences, polishing one's paraphrase), and concept mapping. Students read and mapped three texts and wrote summaries of two of the texts. Students completed concept maps of the text before writing summaries, and as part of the mapping tactic, they were instructed to label the links
between ideas. The three-part unit did function successfully as an instructional tool. The students who completed all three parts of the unit produced summaries that were well-organized and that transformed the original material by combining ideas across sentences and paragraphs. Used as an in-class exercise, however, the unit took enough class time that future trials may involve take-home exercises as well. (Contains 13 references.) (AEF)


Notes:
In: VisionQuest: Journeys toward Visual Literacy. Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (28th, Cheyenne, Wyoming, October, 1996); see IR 018 353.


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Osmundson, E., G. Chung, et al. (1999). Knowledge mapping in the classroom: A tool for examining the development of students' conceptual understandings. Los Angeles, Center for the Study of Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing: 1-42.

Others, A. and P. Adamczyk (1994). "Concept Mapping: A Multi-Level and Multi-Purpose Tool." School Science Review 76(275): 116-124.
Abstract:
Considers the idea that concept mapping has applications beyond those associated with student assessment. Outlines further uses for concept mapping in the classroom along with suggestions for implementing this powerful tool. (DDR)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Oughten, J. M. and W. M. Reed (1999). "The influence of learner differences on the construction of hypermedia concepts: a case study." Computers in Human Behavior 15: 11-50.
A case study sought to determine how each of 3 graduate students,
grouped together based on their learning style/cognitive control differences,
influenced the development of a group concept map of hypermedia-related
concepts. One student was an Assimilator/Field-Independent; another, a
Converger/ Field-Mixed; and the 3rd, an Accommodator/Field-Dependent. Data
sources were (1) individual concept maps used during the group task, (2) the
group concept map, (3) transcriptions of the dialog that took place when
completing the group task, (4) Ss' hypermedia knowledge, (5) Ss' hypermedia
experience, (6) features identified as comprising a hypermedia environment,
and (7) Ss' hypermedia insights. The Assimilator/Field-Independent student
was the most influential, by having (1) the greatest similarity between her
individual concept map and the group map, (2) the highest number of concepts
added and the fewest number of concepts omitted, (3) the highest number of
hypermedia features that were also included in the group concept map, and (4)
the most complex links between concepts. The next influential was the
Converger/Field-Mixed. The least influential was the
Accommodator/Field-Dependent. Explanations are given from the learning
style/cognitive control perspective.

Oughton, J. M. and W. M. Reed (2000). "The Effect of Hypermedia Knowledge and Learning Style on Student-Centered Concept Maps about Hypermedia." Journal of Research on Computing in Education 32(3): 366-384.
Abstract:
Describes a study that focused on 21 graduate students enrolled in a hypermedia in education class who constructed concept maps on the term hypermedia. The purpose of the study was to determine whether students created concept maps differently based on their Kolb learning styles and levels of hypermedia knowledge. (Author/LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representation: a dual coding approach. New York, Oxford University Press.

Pankratius, W. J. (1990). "Building an organized knowledge base: concept mapping and achievement in secondary school physics." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(4): 315-333.

Pankratius, W. J. and T. M. Keith (1987). "Building an Organized Knowledge Base: Concept Mapping in Secondary School Science."
Abstract:
Perspectives on concept mapping and its benefits to students in the learning of scientific concepts are presented in this paper. A concept map is defined as a two-dimensional heirarchical representation of concepts which indicates the relationship between the selected concepts. Aspects of concept mapping addressed in this review include: (1) its structure (consisting of a sample map); (2) construction of a map (specifying the steps involved in mapping); (3) applications (indicating uses in curriculum development, instruction, and evaluation); (4) classroom use (suggesting ways for introducing concept mapping to students); (5) research studies (reviewing one study's findings); and (6) a conclusion (re-emphasizing the instructional value of concept mapping). (ML)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Science Teachers Association (35th, Washington, DC, March 26-29, 1987).


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Paolucci, M., D. Suthers, et al. (1995). Belvedere: Stimulating Students' Critical Discussion. CHI95 Conference Companion, Denver CO.

Parkes, J., D. M. Zimmaro, et al. (2000). " Reducing Task-related Variance in Performance Assessment Using Concept Maps." Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice 6(4): 357-378.
Abstract:
Examined the effects of concept maps on the task-related variance components of Political Science performance assessments for 187 college students. Task variance components were unchanged across groups using or not using concept maps. But the person main effect components increased and the task-by-person interaction components decreased for those using concept maps. (SLD)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Parkes, J. (1999). Structural knowledge as a pre-requisite to valid performance assessment scores. American Educational Research Association.

Passmore, G. (1998). "Using Vee diagrams to facilitate meaningful learning and misconception remediation in radiologic technologies laboratory education." Radiologic Science and Education 4(1): 11-28.

Patterson, M. E. and A. Others (1992). "Effects of Communication Aids and Strategies on Cooperative Teaching." Journal of Educational Psychology 84(4): 453-461.
Abstract:
Results with 101 undergraduates indicate that students interacting with a knowledge map perform better than students using a text, and students who are given a strategy for using the communication aid (knowledge map or text) performed better than those not given a strategy. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (SLD)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Patterson, M. E., D. F. Dansereau, et al. (1993). "Receiving information during a cooperative episode: Effects of communication aids and verbal ability." Learning & Individual Differences 5(1): 1-11.
Examined the use of communication aids as methods to facilitate an individual's acquisition of scientific material within cooperative learning situations. 38 high and low verbal ability college students were taught cooperatively by a peer using either a knowledge map or a text as a communication aid. Results reveal that low verbal ability Ss taught with a knowledge map performed better than low verbal ability Ss taught with a text. Knowledge maps also were judged to be used more often and more effectively than text.

Patterson, E. W. (2001). "Structuring the Composition Process in Scientific Writing." International Journal of Science Education 23(1): 1-16.
Abstract:
Focuses on students' ability to explain their ideas in writing who were able to demonstrate a high level of scientific concept understanding during discussion. Indicates that scaffolding the writing process both at the sentence level and the text level facilitates an improvement in the expression of scientific knowledge. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Paulson, B. L. and M. H. Edwards (1997). "Parent Expectations of an Elementary School Counsellor: A Concept-Mapping Approach." Canadian Journal of Counselling 31(1): 67-81.
Abstract:
Used a concept-mapping process to understand parents' (N=25) expectations of an elementary school counselor's role. Parents requested that the counselor become highly involved in providing services that involve support, referral, education, and information. Parents expected that the school counselor would collaborate extensively with them. Other expectations are listed. (RJM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Paulston, R. G. (1992). "A Cognitive Mapping of Vision and Division in Comparative Education Texts."
Abstract:
The theoretical landscape in which scholars of comparative education work has become increasingly diverse and fragmented in recent years. This paper contends that cognitive maps can enable scholars to see better this shifting landscape. Mapping also is offered as a rationale by which social and intellectual worlds may be uttered and constructed in different ways according to different principles of vision and division. It is contended that failing to map the array of positions within the theoretical landscape prevents scholars from seeing more objectively their own vantage points and how their own perspectives relate to those of others. To illustrate the utility of such mapmaking, the changing ways of seeking comparative and international education through both textual analysis and the use of four figures or maps are examined. The changing representations of knowledge in the field since the 1950s, paradigms and theories today, and how diverse
knowledge constructs may be mapped at micro and macro levels of social reality are reviewed and discussed. (DB)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International 30-October 4, 1992).


Publication type:
Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Pavlenko, A. (1999). " New Approaches to Concepts in Bilingual Memory." Bilingualism: Language and Cognition Dec 1999 v2 n3 p209-30 2(3): 209-230.
Abstract:
Argues that current approaches to modeling of concepts in bilingual memory privilege word representation at the expense of concept representation. Identifies four problems with the study of concepts in bilingual memory. (Author/VWL)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Pavlenko, A. (2000). "New Approaches to Concepts in Bilingual Memory." Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 3(1): 1-4.
Abstract:
Argues that in the study of bilingualism, conceptual representations should be treated as related but not equivalent to word meanings, as knowledge-based, dynamic and language- and culture-specific. (Author/VWL)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Pearsall, N. R., J. Skipper, et al. (1997). "Knowledge restructuring in the life sciences: a longitudinal study of conceptual change in biology." Science Education 81(2): 193-215.
successive & progressive conceptual changes in structural complexity of knowledge, male vs female science & nonscience college students, longitudinal study
Abstract:
Examined successive and progressive changes in the structural complexity of knowledge held by introductory, college-level biology students and how those changes are affected by the students' primary learning mode and gender. To examine the way learners restructure knowledge over the course of a semester, 67 male and 94 female science and nonscience majors constructed concept maps at 4-wk intervals throughout the term. The maps were then evaluated for structural complexity and change based on the works of other investigators. Results suggest that a substantial amount of knowledge restructuring takes place and that much of it is incremental in nature. The observed relationships between knowledge restructuring and predominant learning mode and gender of students are potentially significant. The evidence suggests that students who use "active," "deep" information processing strategies construct more elaborate, well-differentiated knowledge structures. Furthermore, it appears that gender may be an important mediator of meaningful learning. It is particularly noted that where gender differences were found, they tended to favor females.

Peel, J. L. and A. Others (1992). " Identifying the Best Scenario for Using Schematic Organizers as Integration Tools for Alcohol-Related Information."
Abstract:
The goal of the present study was to examine scenarios for using two schematic organizers, schematic knowledge maps and conceptual matrices, in integrating episodic and semantic knowledge about alcohol. Seventy students (36 males and 34 females) from undergraduate general psychology classes participated for course credit. Participants were assigned to either a schematic organizer group or an essay writing group. These groups were subdivided further into two treatment sequences: episodic/semantic, or semantic/episodic. Sixteen subjects were in the map/episodic-semantic group, 19 were in the map/semantic-episodic group, 17 were in the essay/episodic-semantic group, and 18 were in the essay/semantic-episodic group. The episodic activity required participants to complete materials using their own alcohol-related experiences, whereas the semantic activity required participants to annotate expert materials. Assessment measures used were consumer-
satisfaction questionnaires and free-recall tests. While no preferences were established for any one scenario, the episodic activities were rated higher than the semantic activities regardless of the integration sequence. The semantic/episodic integration scenario did produce higher recall scores for the expert information. One table and six figures illustrate the discussion. (Author/SLD)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (21st, Knoxville, TN, November 11-13, 1992).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Peel, J. L. and D. F. Dansereau (1998). "Management and prevention of personal problems in older adolescents via schematic maps and peer feedbacks." Adolescence 33(130): 355-374.
Provides a basis for enhancing personal development in older adolescents by examining the usefulness of 2 information-processing tools in solving personal problems: schematic maps and peer feedback. 95 college students were assigned to either a schematic map group or an essay group, and further subdivided into groups that worked alone or with a vicarious partner. Assessment consisted of analyzing and generating alternatives to a scenario involving a college student with a drinking problem. Results indicated that alternative generation, an important step in the problem-solving process, is susceptible to experimental manipulation. Schematic maps facilitate the generation of wider-ranging, viable, synergistic alternatives to an uncomfortable situation. Maps help illustrate the complex systems within which problems occur and how patterns of behavior are maintained through reinforcement. Peer feedback may provide information about strategies for the development of additional options.

Peel, J. L., D. F. Dansereau, et al. (1996). "Schematic Maps: Cognitive tools for enhancing the early stages of counseling." American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse 22(3): 423-437.
Conducted 2 experiments to explore the utility of schematic maps as tools for the early stages of both self- (Exp 1, S-C) and peer-counseling (Exp 2, P-C), focusing on the destructive patterns of alcohol-use-related behavior (ARB). In Exp 1, 42 psychology undergraduates were assigned to either a schematic map or an essay group. Their ARB patterns were gathered and analyzed from the counselor's perspective. In Exp 2, 38 students from upper-division psychology courses were asked to evaluate ARB patterns, in the form of maps or essays, which were presented either in the same form as they were extracted or were transposed to the other format. In Exps 1 and 2, assessment consisted of questionnaires that addressed the tools' usefulness in the counseling process. Results showed that schematic maps are potentially powerful tools for both P-C and S-C. For S-C, maps were preferred over traditional essay writing. The subjective reaction to maps as P-C tools was positive.

Pendley, B., R. Bretz, et al. (1994). "Concept maps as a tool to assess instruction in chemistry." Journal of Chemical Education 70(1): 9-15.

Peterson, A. R. and P. J. Snyder (1998). "Using Mind Maps To Teach Social Problems Analysis."


Abstract:
This paper identifies five difficulties in teaching the analysis of social problems, and proffers "mind maps," a concept that refers to the ways in which students create a visual representation of their thinking patterns, as a possible solution. In constructing mind maps, especially for a Social Problems course, the following four steps are recommended: (1) preparation--students must do background reading and research on a social problem of interest to them; (2) brainstorming-students write down all the causes and consequences related to the social problem they've chosen to investigate, then identify the ones central to their topic; (3) revision-students revise their initial drafts and continue to gather data; and (4) presentation-students present their mind maps to others for understanding and evaluation. Some of the benefits of mind maps are that they require active learning, improve memory and learning skills, encourage creative thinking and
problem-solving, and honor different learning styles. This paper presents the results of using mind maps at Columbus State Community College, as well as several mind map projects. (Contains 15 references.) (EMH)


Publication type:
Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Picking, R. "Concept maps as planning tools for multimedia essay writing."

Picking, R. (1996). Web in a spin. British HCI Group Symposium, Knowledge Media Institute, Open University, UK.

Pinkerton, K. D. (1998). "Network Similarity (NETSIM) as a Method of Assessing Structural Knowledge for Large Groups." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 9(3-4): 249-269.
Abstract:
Discussion of structural knowledge assessment for large groups focuses on the features of a "KNOT" computer program which uses a network similarity index (NETSIM) to compare novice and expert concept maps. Treatment in three high school physics classes investigated reliability as well as content, construct, concurrent, and predictive validities. (Author/LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Pinto, A. J. and H. J. Zeitz (1997). "Concept Mapping: A Strategy for Promoting Meaningful Learning in Medical Education." Medical Teacher 19(2): 114-121.
Abstract:
Endorses concept mapping as the way to achieve the most meaningful learning. In concept mapping, concepts are organized according to their hierarchical relationships. Concept-mapping skills can help to organize and integrate information, assess existing knowledge, gain more insight into all knowledge, and relate basic science concepts to the clinical presentation of a patient. (AIM)


Publication type:
Guides-Information analysis (070); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Pitre, U., D. F. Dansereau, et al. (1997). "The role of node-link maps in enhancing counseling efficiency." Journal of Addictive Diseases 16(3): 39-49.
Node-link mapping is a counseling tool that helps clients and counselors visualize relationships between ideas, actions, and feelings. Previous research has shown that methadone-maintained clients receiving mapping-enhanced counseling have more positive during-treatment outcomes (e.g., better session attendance and higher probability of clean urines) than those receiving standard counseling. Findings also suggest that mapping enhances the efficiency of counseling sessions by increasing "on task" attention and by reducing communication problems. In this study of 342 outpatients at methadone-maintenance clinics, mapping counseling was associated with greater coverage of collateral issues (i.e., issues indirectly related to drug use) than standard counseling and lower during-treatment use as indicated by urinalysis results.

Ploetzner, R., E. Fehse, et al. (1999). "Learning to Relate Qualitative and Quantitative Problem Representations in a Model-Based Setting for Collaborative Problem Solving." Journal of the Learning Sciences 8(2): 177-214.
Abstract:
Investigates how 10th-grade students acquire, extend, and successively relate knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects of classical mechanics. Analysis of the multicomponent tests revealed that qualitative, as well as quantitative, knowledge can be taught successfully using concept maps. (Author/CCM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Ploetzner, R., H. U. Hoppe, et al. (1996). Model-based design of activity spaces for collaborative problem solving and learning. Proceedings of the European Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education.

Plotnick, E. (1997). Concept Mapping: A Graphical System for Understanding the Relationship Between Concepts.

Plotnick, E. (1997). "Concept Mapping: A Graphical System for Understanding the Relationship Between Concepts."

Pohl, M. (1998). "Hypermedia as a Cognitive Tool."
Abstract:
This paper reports on a study that observed students creating structured hypertext documents, and how they try to convey structural information, in order to formulate tentative guidelines/principles for the design of concept mapping tools or hypertext systems with an emphasis on the representation of structural knowledge, and to formulated guidelines or principles for educational practice. Student use of hypertext and DarkStar, the hypertext authoring system used in the study, are described; concept mapping, structural information, and hypertext, and their effects on education, are discussed. A sample of 143 student-created documents were analyzed according to the structure of the whole document as it appeared on the Overview Map, as well as layout and screen design. Results indicated that: students predominantly used a hierarchical form of structuring information; students predominantly linked the same term occurring on two nodes of their
document; students are acquainted with basic principles of screen design and use them to structure their documents; chunking and queuing information are popular with students; and pictures and graphics were rarely used. A figure illustrates the overview editor. Two tables present data on the distribution of hierarchical versus non-hierarchical links and organization of information on the screen. Contains 14 references. (DLS)


Notes:
In: ED-MEDIA/ED-TELECOM 98 World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia & World Conference on Educational Telecommunications. Proceedings (10th, Freiburg, Germany, June 20-25, 1998); see IR 019 307. Figure may not reproduce clearly.


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Pomson, A. and R. Hoz (1998). "Sought and found: adolescents' 'ideal' historical conceptions as unveiled by concept mapping." Journal of Curriculum Studies 30(3): 319-337.

Postlethwait, S. N., J. D. Novak, et al. (1972). The Audio-tutorial approach to learning. Minneapolis, MN, Burgess.

Priss, U. and J. Old (1998). "Information Access through Conceptual Structures and GIS."
Abstract:
Presents a new technique for information access based on a combination of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and conceptual structures as modeled in relational concept analysis. Describes a graphical interface that allows access of spatial, hierarchical, and linear data in a common manner; discusses its features and limits. (Author/AEF)


Notes:
Paper presented at the ASIS Annual Meeting (61st, Pittsburgh, PA, October 25-29, 1998).


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Pruisner, P. A. P. (1997). "Using Graphics for Integrated Planning."
Abstract:
There is an emphasis on meaningmaking, problem solving, and discovery in contemporary educational settings-- facts and concepts integrated into the curriculum by unifying themes that connect to real-world experiences. Using graphics to represent the thinking of students in learning and the thinking of teachers in integrated planning can be efficient because they portray much information and effective because they facilitate communication. This paper asserts, however, that a common language of graphics must be presented for graphics to be universally understood in integrated planning. Using top-down and bottom-up thinking to guide graphic selection facilitates planning and learning for all contents, types, and levels of users. Top-down visuals can test ideas against facts or solve specific problems by using concept maps to relate ideas to facts or ideas to other ideas. In contrast, bottom-up graphics help students scan, sort, and organize information.
Selecting graphics that communicate but are flexible in their power to represent complex thinking is essential. The graphical representations in this top-down, bottom-up schema provide the common language of graphic tools that is needed, while also allowing for varied interpretation and flexible use by teachers and learners alike. An eight-step instructional plan is outlined, and five figures present examples of graphics from integrated units. (AEF)


Notes:
In: VisionQuest: Journeys toward Visual Literacy. Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (28th, Cheyenne, Wyoming, October, 1996); see IR 018 353.

Quinlan, M. R. (1968). Semantic memory. Semantic information processing (pp. 216-270). M. Minsky. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press: 216-270.

Ramesh, B. and K. Sengupta (1995). "Multimedia in a design rationale decision support system." Decision Support Systems 15: 181-196.
graphical depiction of design rationale, using IBIS

Rautama, E., E. Sutinen, et al. (1997). "Supporting Learning Process with Concept Map Scripts." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3-4): 407-420.
Abstract:
Describes a framework for computer-aided concept mapping that provides the means to easily trace the learning process. Presents the construction of a concept map as a script which consists of elementary operations. This approach can be applied in presentation tools, in evaluating the learning process, and in computer-aided learning. (Author/AEF)


Notes:
Theme issue: "Concept Mapping."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Raymond, A. M. (1997). "The Use of Concept Mapping in Qualitative Research: A Multiple Case Study in Mathematics Education." Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics 19(3): 1-28.
Abstract:
Illustrates how concept mapping can benefit qualitative research to clarify relationships between and among various elements through nonstructured interviews. The research value of examining thoughts through visual representations is demonstrated through the context of a qualitative study of relationships between mathematics beliefs and practice in which concept mapping played key and multiple roles. Contains 31 references. (Author/ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Reader, W. R. and N. Hammond (1994). A comparison of structured and unstructured knowledge mapping tools in psychology teaching. Proceedings of CiP 1994, University of York.

Reader, W. and N. Hammond (1994). "Computer-based tools to support learning from hypertext: Concept mapping tools and beyond." Computers and Education 22(1-2): 99-106.

Reed, W. M. and J. M. Oughton (1998). "The Effects of Hypermedia Knowledge and Learning Style on the Construction of Group Concept Maps." Computers in Human Behavior 14(1): 1-22.
Abstract:
Analyzes students' visual renderings of concepts related to the term "hypermedia" to determine whether groups, membership of which was based on a mixture of learning styles or a mixture of hypermedia knowledge, constructed concept maps that differed in terms of several factors. Learning style seemed to explain the types of interactions more than hypermedia knowledge did. (Author/AEF)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Reed, W. M. and A. Others (1996). "The Effects of Students' Computer-Based Prior Experiences and Instructional Exposures on the Application of Hypermedia-Related Mental Models." Journal of Educational Computing Research 14(2): 185-207.
Abstract:
University students (n=15) were asked how a hypermedia program's features reflected 4 theoretical constructs, 2 linear models (semantic networks, frames/scripts), and 2 nonlinear models (concept maps and schemata). Regardless of hypermedia experience, students cited more linear than nonlinear models, suggesting that more experience in programming, authoring, and hypermedia would increase their ability to identify mental models. (PEN)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Regis, A. and P. G. Albertazzi (1996). " Concept Maps in Chemistry Education." Journal of Chemical Education 73(11): 1084-1088.
Abstract:
Describes the use of concept maps as a metacognitive tool to help chemistry teachers and learners improve teaching and learning. Concept maps were used in response to changes in the conceptions of the nature of scientific knowledge and in how learning occurs. Concept maps are valuable in documenting and exploring the restructuring of conceptual frameworks. (PVD)

define cognitive events in maps


Publication type:
Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Regoczei, S. and E. Plantinga (1987). "Creating the domain of discourse: Ontology and inventory." International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 27: 235-250.
The paper describes the foundations of a methodology for natural language-based knowledge acquisition. It concentrates on a special type of context: the case in which an analyst interviews an informant who is a domain expert and the text of the discussion is carefully recorded. In this context the following paradox arises: the analyst is after knowledge, but all he gets are words. Matching concepts to the words---or, more precisely, constructing conceptual structures which model the mental models of the informant---is the task of the analyst. The conceptual structures are to be specified as sets of conceptual graphs.

To carry out this task, the clear specification of the domain of discourse in terms of an ontology and an inventory becomes necessary. The discourse is considered to include not only the text of the discussion between the analyst and the informant, but also the ever-changing mental models of both parties. The mental models are construed as modelling some object domain ``out there'', but the domain of discourse is created through discourse.

A step-by-step technique is given for specifying the domain of discourse with careful attention paid to version control. It is noted that different interviews about the ``same'' object domain may give rise to several different domains of discourse.

Regoczei, S. and E. P. O. Plantinga (1987). "Creating the domain of discourse: Ontology and Inventory." International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 27, 235-250 27.

Regoczei, S. and G. Hirst (1988). Knowledge acquisition as knowledge explication by conceptual analysis. Toronto, Computer Systems Research Institute, University of Toronto.

Regoczei, S. and G. Hirst (1988). Knowledge acquisition as knowledge explication by conceptual analysis. Conceptual graphs for knowledge systems. J. Sowa, N. Foo and A. Rao.

Regoczei, S. and G. Hirst (1992). Knowledge and knowledge acquisition in the computational context. The psychology of expertise: cognitive research and empirical AI. R. R. Hoffman. Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum: 12-25.

Regoczei, S. and G. Hirst (1988). The meaning triangle as a tool for the acquisition of abstract conceptual knowledge. Toronto, Computer Systems Research Institute, University of Toronto.

Reichherzer, T., A. J. Cañas, et al. (1998, August). The Giant: A Classroom Collaborator. Proceedings of the Workshop on Pedogogical Agents, San Antonio, TX.

Reichherzer, T. R., A. J. Canas, et al. (1998). The Giant: A classroom Collaborator. Proceeding of the Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS). San Antonio.

Reichherzer, T., A. J. Cañas, et al. (1998, May). The Giant: An agent-based approach to knowledge construction and sharing. Proceedings of the Eleventh Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Symposium, Sanibel Island, Florida.

Rewey, K. L., D. F. Dansereau, et al. (1989). "Effects of scripted cooperation and knowledge maps on the processing of technical material." Journal of Educational Psychology 81(4): 604-609.
This study replicates and extends prior investigations of scripted cooperation and knowledge maps by examining (a) their independent and interactive effects on procedural knowledge acquisition and (b) the transfer of these effects to individual learning. One hundred four subjects, randomly assigned to knowledge map/dyad, knowledge map/individual, text/dyad, and text/individual conditions, studied two acquisition procedures in the experimental conditions and a transfer-text procedure in an individual, unscripted manner. Subjects completed delayed free-recall tests over each procedure. During acquisition, knowledge maps had positive effects on recall of main and intermediate ideas. There were no significant treatment effects on transfer recall. The instrumental uses and limitations of knowledge maps are discussed.

Rewey, K., D. Dansereau, et al. (1991). "Knowledge maps and information processing strategies." Contemporary Educational Psychology 16(3): 203-214.
expert knowledge maps & summarization, recall of main ideas &
details, college students
Abstract: Examined the compensatory effects of a summarization strategy on
expert knowledge map (k-map) substitutes for text. 96 undergraduates studied
a science passage in text or k-map format using a summarization or reread
strategy. Results indicate that k-maps and summarization had a positive
effect on main idea recall, but no effect on the recall of detail ideas.
Also, summarization appears to be an effective strategy for novice k-map
readers.

Rewey, K., D. Dansereau, et al. (1989). "Scripted cooperation and knowledge map supplements: Effects on the recall of biological and statistical information." Journal of Experimental Education 60(2): 93-107.
knowledge maps & cooperative scripts, recall & transfer recall of
technical material, college students
Abstract: This study replicates and extends prior investigations of scripted
cooperation and knowledge maps by examining (a) their independent and
interactive effects on procedural knowledge acquisition and (b) the transfer
of these effects to individual learning. One hundred four subjects, randomly
assigned to knowledge map/dyad, knowledge map/individual, text/dyad, and
text/individual conditions, studied two acquisition procedures in the
experimental conditions and a transfer-text procedure in an individual,
unscripted manner. Subjects completed delayed free-recall tests over each
procedure. During acquisition, knowledge maps had positive effects on recall
of main and intermediate ideas. There were no significant treatment effects
on transfer recall. The instrumental uses and limitations of knowledge maps
are discussed.

Rewey, K. L., D. F. Dansereau, et al. (1992). "Scripted cooperation and knowledge map supplements: Effects on the recall of biological and statistical information." Journal of Experimental Education 60(2): 93-107.
Examined the independent and interactive effects of supplement format (knowledge map vs text vs no supplement) and strategy (cooperative learning vs cooperative teaching vs individual study) on recall of information. After training and practice sessions, 186 undergraduates studied a science and math passage over which they were tested. Two individual difference measures were also taken and combined into a general ability score. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the recall variables indicated that (1) high ability Ss outperformed low ability Ss and (2) cooperative learning with map supplements had a mutally facilitative effect on low ability Ss' recall.

Reynolds, S. and D. Dansereau (1990). "The knowledge hypermap: An alternative to hypertext." Computers in Education 14(5): 409-416.

Reynolds, S., M. E. Patterson, et al. (1991). "Knowledge hypermaps and cooperative learning." Computers in Education 16(2): 167-173.

Rice, D., J. Ryan, et al. (1998). "Using Concept Maps to Assess Student Learning in the Science Classroom: Must Different Methods Compete?" Journal of Research in Science Teaching 35(10): 1103-1127.
A method of scoring concept maps was developed to assess knowledge
and comprehension levels of science achievement in students in 7th- grade
life science classes with the students' regular teacher serving as
teacher/researcher. By linking scoring of concept maps to instructional
objectives, scores were based upon the correctness of propositions. High
correlations between the concept map scores and unit multiple choice tests
provided strong evidence of the content validity of the map scores.
Correlations between map scores and state criterion-referenced and national
norm-referenced standardized tests were indicators of high concurrent
validity. This approach to concept map scoring represents a distinct
departure from traditional methods that focus on characteristics such as
hierarchy and branching. A large body of research (e.g., M. A. Ruiz-Primo and
R. Shavelson, 1996) has demonstrated the utility of such methods in the
assessment of higher-level learning outcomes. Results suggest that a concept
map might be used in assessing declarative and procedural knowledge, both of
which have a place in the science classroom. Results suggest that science
curriculum and its corresponding assessment need not be dichotomized into
knowledge/comprehension vs higher-order outcomes.

Ring, D. a. N., J. (1971). "The effects of cognitive structure variables on achievement in college chemistry." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 8(4): 325-333.

Ritchie, D. and C. Volkl (2000). "Effectiveness of Two Generative Learning Strategies in the Science Classroom." School Science and Mathematics 100(2): 83-89.
Abstract:
Assesses the effectiveness of two generative learning strategies, concept mapping and laboratory experiments, to determine if one is more effective with individual learners or learning groups in science classrooms. Indicates that students starting with concept maps showed higher achievement than students beginning with laboratory experiments, and no difference was found between students working as individuals or in groups. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Rivard, L. P. and S. B. Straw (2000). "The Effect of Talk and Writing on Learning Science: An Exploratory Study." Science Education 84(5): 566-593.
Abstract:
Investigates the role of talk, writing, and talk and writing on the learning and retention of simple and integrated knowledge, and describes the mechanisms by which talk and writing mediate these processes. Suggests that talk is important for sharing, clarifying, and distributing knowledge among peers, and writing is an important tool for transforming rudimentary ideas into knowledge. (Contains 116 references.) (Author)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Roberts, L. (1999). "Using Concept Maps To Measure Statistical Understanding." International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 30(5): 707-717.
Abstract:
Examines the use of concept maps to measure tertiary science students' understanding of fundamental concepts in statistical inference. Concludes that valuable qualitative information can be gained from an investigation of student concept maps such as students' misconceptions, which cannot be obtained through traditional assessment methods. Contains 17 references. (Author/ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Robertson, I. (2000). "Imitative Problem Solving: Why Transfer of Learning Often Fails To Occur." Instructional Science 28(4): 263-289.
Abstract:
Presents empirical evidence for imitative problem solving and the interpretation theory, based on a study of Scottish secondary school students. Discusses analogical problem solving; the interpretation theory notation; and predicted sources of difficulty in mapping and adapting the practice problem to solve a variant. (Contains 42 references.) (Author/LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Robertson, B. (2000). " Integrating Technology into Instruction." MultiMedia Schools 7(2): 34-39.
Abstract:
Presents a framework to help media specialists and other educators facilitate the process of integrating computer technology and the Internet into classroom instruction and curriculum design. Highlights include planning, including concept maps; research, including critical thinking; development, including knowledge construction and higher-order thinking skills; refinement, including HTML instruction; and implementation. (LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Robinson, W. R. (1999). "A View from the Science Education Research Literature: Concept Map Assessment of Classroom Learning." Journal of Chemical Education 76(9): 1179.
Abstract:
Reviews a special issue of The Journal of Research in Science Teaching dedicated to concept mapping. Describes four ways in which concept mapping can be of value in science education: (1) as a learning strategy, (2) as an instructional strategy, (3) as a tool in the instructional design process, and (4) as a means of assessing a student's understanding of scientific concepts. (CCM)


Publication type:
Guides-Information analysis (070); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Robinson, D., S. Robinson, et al. (1999). "When words are represented in memory like pictures: evidence for spatial encoding of study materials." Contemporary Educational Psychology 24(1): 38-54.
The authors examined whether different word displays also differ in
terms of the formation which they are represented in memory. 31
undergraduates studied a text, an outline, a graphic organizer, or a concept
map and then were shown either a verbal (digits) or spatial (dots) display.
They were then tested on comprehension of the first display and recognition
of the second display. Comprehending graphic organizers and concept maps
interfered with the spatial concurrent task and vice versa, whereas the
verbal concurrent task interfered with comprehension of texts and outlines.
These results are consistent with the conjoint retention hypothesis
suggesting that spatial encoding may explain the facilitative effects of
graphic organizers and concept maps.

Rodi, L. L., J. A. Pierce, et al. (1989). Putting the expert in charge: Graphical knowledge acquisition for fault diagnosis and repair. SIGART Newsletter. S. I. K. A. S. N. In C. R. Westphal & K. L. McGraw (Eds.), No. 108 (pp. 56-62). New York: ACM. New York, Special Interest Group on Artificial Intelligence, Association for Computing Machinery: 56-62.

Roehler, L. R., G. G. Duffy, et al. (1990). Teachers' knowledge structures: Documenting their development and their relationship to instruction, Institute for Research on Teaching, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Roehrig, G., J. A. Luft, et al. (2001). "Versatile Vee Maps." Science Teacher 68(1): 28-31.
Abstract:
Introduces Vee mapping as an alternative method for traditional lab reports. Discusses six areas concerning Vee maps: (1) focus question; (2) word list; (3) concept map; (4) events; (5) data and analysis; and (6) conclusion. Explains the use of Vee maps and reasons for their use. (YDS)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Rohrer Murphy, L. and H. Suen (1999). Validating measures of structural knowledge through the multitrait-multimethod matrix. American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.
comparison and validation of measures of structural knowledge
include pathfinder nets, semantic relationship, ordered tree maps

Romance, N. R. and M. R. Vitale (1999). "Concept Mapping as a Tool for Learning: Broadening the Framework for Student-Centered Instruction." College Teaching 47(2): 74-79.
Abstract:
Explores the use of concept mapping as a college teaching technique, drawing on research on conceptual knowledge, concept formation, and classroom applications and variations. Specific activities for concept mapping and modeling are offered, and the nature of the teacher's and student's role is discussed. (MSE)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Roshan, V. and F. Dwyer (1998). "Effect of Embedded Graphic Mapping Strategies in Complementing Verbal Instruction." International Journal of Instructional Media 25(4): 389-398.
Abstract:
This study examined the instructional effect of varied graphic mapping strategies (spider maps, frame maps, and semantic maps) in facilitating college-student achievement of different types of educational objectives, and the significance of the amount of time students have to process the information presented in the varied mapping strategies. (Author/LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Ross, J. (2000). "A new way of information retrieval: 3-D indexing and concept mapping." Learned Publishing 13: 119-123.

Roth, W. and A. Roychoudhury (1993). "The concept map as a tool for the collaborative construction of knowledge: A microanalysis of high school physics students." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 30(5): 503-554.
construction of knowledge during collaborative concept mapping in science learning, high school physics students
Abstract:
Investigated concept mapping (CMP) as a means of assessing the quality of 29 male high school physics students' understanding from 2 perspectives: the analysis of the process of constructing meaning and the analysis of the products of this cognitive activity. Ss worked in collaborative groups during all of the concept mapping sessions. The concept maps as products differed in their hierarchical organization, the number of links, and the benefit to the individual Ss. Ss mediated propositions verbally and nonverbally, took adversarial positions and appealed to authority, and formed temporary alliances based on presumed expertise. CMP led to sustained discourse on the topic and improved the declarative knowledge of several Ss both in terms of hierarchical organization and local configuration of the concepts. It also let unintended and scientifically incorrect notions become ingrained and go unchallenged.

Roth, W. and A. Roychoudhury (1994). "Science discourse through collaborative concept mapping: New perspectives for the teacher." International Journal of Science Education 16(4): 437-455.

Roth, W. (1994). "Student views of collaborative concept mapping: An emancipatory research project." Science Education 78(1): 1-34.

Rubba, P. A., R. L. Wiesenmayer, et al., Eds. Global Atmospheric Change
Enhanced Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion and Ground Level Ozone Pollution:A Teachers Guide to a Science-Technology-Society Issue Investigation and Action Unit for use in Middle and High School Science
.

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., S. E. Schultz, et al. (1998). Comparison of the reliability and validity of scores from two concept mapping techniques. Los Angeles, CA, Center for the Study of Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing.

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., S. E. Schultz, et al. (2001). "Comparison of the Reliability and Validity of Scores from Two Concept-Mapping Techniques." Journal of Research in Science Teaching Feb 2001 v38 n2 p260-78.
Abstract:
Reports the results of a study that compared two concept-mapping techniques, one high-directed, "fill-in-the- map" and one low-directed, "construct-a-map-from-scratch". Examines whether: (1) skeleton map scores were sensitive to the sample; (2) the two types of skeleton maps were equivalent; and (3) the two mapping techniques provided similar information on students' connected understanding. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., S. E. Schultz, et al. (2001). "Comparison of the reliability and validity of scores from two concept-mapping techniques." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 38(2): 260-278.
Abstract:
Reports the results of a study that compared 2 concept-mapping techniques, 1 high-directed, "fill-in-the-map," and 1 low-directed, "construct-a-map-from-scratch." The researchers examined whether: (1) skeleton map scores were sensitive to the sample of nodes or linking lines to be filled in; (2) the 2 types of skeleton maps were equivalent; and (3) the 2 mapping techniques provided similar information about high school chemistry students' connected understanding. Results indicated that fill-in-the-map scores were not sensitive to the sample of concepts or linking lines to be filled in. Nevertheless, the fill-in-the-nodes and fill-in-the- lines techniques were not equivalent forms of fill-in-the-map. Finally, high-directed and low-directed maps led to different interpretations about students' knowledge structure. Whereas scores obtained under the high- directed technique indicated that students' performance was close to the maximum possible, the scores
obtained with the low-directed technique revealed that students' knowledge was incomplete compared to a criterion map. It is concluded that the construct-a-map technique better reflected differences among students' knowledge structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., S. E. Schultz, et al. (1997). Concept Map-Based Assessment in Science: Two Exploratory Studies. Los Angeles, CRESST National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing.

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., S. E. Schultz, et al. (1999). On the cognitive validity of interpretations of scores from alternative concept mapping techniques. Los Angeles, CA, Center for the Study of Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing.

Ruiz-Primo, M. A. (2000). "On the use of concept maps as an assessment tool in science: What have we learned so far?" Revista Electronica de Investogacion Educativa 2(1).

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., R. J. Shavelson, et al. (1997). On the validity of concept map-based assessment interpretations: An experiment testing the assumption of hierarchical maps in science. Los Angeles, CA, Center for the Study of Evalutation, Standards and Student Testing.

Ruiz-Primo, M. A. and R. J. Shavelson (1996). " Problems and issues in the use of concept maps in science assessment." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 33(6): 569-600.


A concept map is a graph consisting of nodes representing concepts
and labeled lines denoting the relation between a pair of nodes. A student's
concept map is interpreted as representing important aspects of the
organization of concepts in his or her memory (cognitive structure). The
purpose of this article is to examine the validity of claims that concept
maps measure an important aspect of students' knowledge structures in a
subject domain such as science. The review led to the following conclusions:
(a) an integrative working cognitive theory is needed to limit the current
variation in concept-mapping techniques for assessment purposes; (b) before
concept maps are used for assessment and before map scores are reported to
teachers, students, the public, and policy makers, research needs to provide
reliability and validity information on the effect of different mapping
techniques; and (c) research on students' facility in using concept maps, on
training techniques, and on the effect on teaching is needed if concept map
assessments are to be used in classrooms and in large-scale accountability
systems.

Ryan, M., R. Twibell, et al. (2000). " Learning To Care for Clients in Their World, Not Mine." Journal of Nursing Education 39(9): 401-408.
Abstract:
Nine nurses who had undergone cultural immersion experiences in college described the core dimension as learning to care. Strategies included social support and learning to communicate, live, and think differently. Immersion resulted in changed values, improved communication skills, and personal and professional growth. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Rye, J. A. (2001). "Enhancing Teachers' Use of Technology through Professional Development on Electronic Concept Mapping." Journal of Science Education and Technology 10(3): 223-235.
Abstract:
Reports on a workshop on electronic concept mapping with a group (n=18) of science teachers in a Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA). Suggests using this software for the academic enrichment of underserved students, regular classroom instruction, and inservice training for colleagues. Concludes that HSTA teachers embrace electronic concept mapping as a versatile educational tool. (Author/MM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Rye, J. A. and P. A. Rubba (1998). "An Exploration of the Concept Map as an Interview Tool To Facilitate the Externalization of Students' Understandings about Global Atmospheric Change." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 35(5): 521-546.
Abstract:
Investigates the effectiveness of two different types of interviews: one that embeds a concept map, and one that does not embed a concept map in order to elicit post-instructional understandings. Focuses on students' understandings of chlorofluorocarbons and their role in global atmospheric change. Contains 71 references. (DDR)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Rye, J. A. and P. A. Rubba (1996). " An Exploratory Study of the Concept Map as a Tool To Facilitate the Externalization of Students' Understandings about Global Atmospheric Change in the Interview Setting."
Abstract:
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different types of post- instruction concept interviews: one that did and one that did not embed a concept mapping process as means of eliciting students' post-instruction conceptual understandings about the nature of, source of, and problems caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The study also tried to determine any effect by the addition of the independent variable, student to expert Pathfinder Network Similarity Index (PFNSI) on the prediction of the criterion measure of accordance (ACCORD). The study also sought to elicit students' perceptions of the process instituted in the interviews to determine what they know. Data was collected from eighth grade physical science students and their teacher using open-ended interviews. Findings indicate an interview that embedded a concept mapping process (compared to an interview that excluded this process) did not affect
statistically significant changes in the externalization of students' conceptual understandings. Another finding was that PFNSI had predictive validity for performance in the interview on the measure of ACCORD and proved to be a reliable confirmatory measure of the degree to which students held an ideal post-instructional understanding. Contains 67 references. (JRH)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (69th, St. Louis, MO, March 31-April 3, 1996).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Rye, J. A. and P. A. Rubba (2002). "Scoring concept maps: an expert map-based scoring scheme weighted for relationships." School Science and Mathematics 102(1): 33-44.

Sack, W. (2000-2001). "Conversation map: an interface for very large scale conversations."

Santhanam, E., C. Leach, et al. (1998). "Concept Mapping: How Should It Be Introduced, and Is There Evidence for Long Term Benefit?" Higher Education 35(3): 317-328.
Abstract:
A naturalistic study with two cycles of intervention was conducted to investigate effects of two methods of introducing concept mapping to Australian university students in introductory genetics. Some students' views were also investigated years later. Results suggest method of introduction can influence both student perceptions of concept mapping and its potential benefit. Instructional implications are discussed. (Author/MSE)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Santone, S. (2001). " Eco-economics in the Classroom." Green Teacher Sum 2001 n65 p36-41(65): 36-41.
Abstract:
Introduces some of the core concepts of ecological economics and describes sample activities that can be used at various grade levels. Presents a hands-on simulation on manufacturing. (YDS)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Sargeant, J. and J. Schuerger (1990). A graphically oriented automated knowledge acquisition tool, 3rd Annual Artifical Intelligence Research Symposium, Florida AI Research Society.

Sargeant, J. M. and J. M. Schuerger (1990). A graphically oriented automated knowledge acquisition tool. 3rd Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Symposium (pp. 107-111).: FLAIRS., Boca Raton, FL.

Scappaticci, F. T. (2000). "Concept Mapping in the Classroom with Inspiration Software." SITE 2000.
Abstract:
This paper gives an overview of the Inspiration Software, a package that is designed to facilitate the construction and use of concept maps in the classroom. The first section discusses concept mapping, defined as any graphic production that is constructed specifically to represent knowledge. The following basic functions of Inspiration are then summarized: (1) diagramming; (2) rapid fire, i.e., a function that makes it easy to get ideas down as fast as possible; (3) moving a symbol; (4) adding unconnected ideas; (5) changing symbol shapes; (6) drawing a link; (7) adding text to a link; (8) scrolling and magnification; (9) formatting symbol text; (9) printing to fit; (10) switching between diagram and outline views; and (11) importing and installing graphics. (Contains 11 references.) (MES)


Notes:
In: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference: Proceedings of SITE 2000 (11th, San Diego, California, February 8-12, 2000). Volumes 1-3; see IR 020 112.


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Schachter, J., H. Herl, et al. (1999). "Computer-based performance assessment: a solution to the narrow measurement and reporting of problem solving." Computers in Human Behavior 15: 403-418.
Discussion of performance assessments that test for higher-order thinking and problem solving focuses on research by the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) that assessed student problem solving using networked computers and the Web, where both performance and process data could be reported back to teachers and students. (Author/LRW)
Notes:
Special Issue: Computer-Based Performance Assessment of Problem Solving.

Schaneveldt, R. (1990). Pathfinder Associative Networks: Studies in Knowledge Orgainzation. Norwood NJ, Ablex.

Schau, C., N. Mattern, et al. (2001). "Select-and-fill-in concept map scores as a measure of students' connected understanding of science." Educational and Psychological Measurement 61(1): 136-158.

Schau, C., N. Mattern, et al. (1999). "Select-and-Fill-in Concept Map Scores as a Measure of Undergraduate Students' Connected Understanding of Introductory Astronomy."
Abstract:
This study was designed to explore the validity of scores from a select-and-fill-in (SAFI) concept map assessment as a measure of 130 undergraduate students' connected understanding of introductory astronomy. Scores from SAFI maps created for this purpose possessed high internal consistency and showed large mean increases from the beginning to the end of the astronomy course. The SAFI map scores exhibited large relationships with scores from direct-instruction multiple-choice examinations and with scores from a relatedness ratings measure, taken together and separately, for students overall and when examined separately by gender. Results provide initial evidence of the validity of scores from SAFI maps as measures of connected understanding of introductory astronomy in ethnically diverse undergraduate students. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/SLD)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 19-23, 1999).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Schau, C. (1997). "Use of map techniques in teaching applied statistics courses." The American Statistician 541(2): 171-175.

Schmeck, R. R. and F. D. Ribich (1979). "Construct Validation of the Inventory of Learning Processes." Applied Psychological Measurement 2(4): 551-562.
Two correlational investigations attempted to establish the construct validity of the dimensions assessed by the Inventory of Learning Processes scales. The scales are Synthesis-Analysis; Study Methods; Fact Retention; and Elaborative Processing. A number of cognitive tests were also administered. (MH)

Schmeck, R. R., F. Ribich, et al. (1977). " Development of a Self-Report Inventory for Assessing Individual Differences in Learning Processes." Applied Psychological Measurement Sum 77 v1, 3 p413-31 1(3): 413-431.

Abstract:
Five studies are presented describing the development of a self-report inventory for measuring individual differences in learning processes. Factor analysis of items yielded four scales: Synthesis-Analysis, Study Methods, Fact Retention, and Elaborative Processing. There were no sex differences, and the scales demonstrated acceptable reliabilities and differential validities. (Author/CTM)

Schmid, R. F. and G. Telaro (1990). "Concept Mapping as an Instructional Strategy for High School Biology." Journal of Educational Research 84(2): 78-85.
Abstract:
Concept mapping, which requires learners to plot concepts and their interrelationships in a meaningful organizational network, was compared with an established curriculum approach. The usefulness of the technique is discussed in terms of its ability to individualize and raise the quality of learning. (JD)
Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Schreiber, D. A. and G. L. Abegg (1991). "Scoring Student-Generated Concept Maps in Introductory College Chemistry."
Abstract:
This study presents a quantitative method for scoring concept maps generated by students learning introductory college chemistry. Concept maps measure the amount of chemical information the student possesses, reasoning ability in chemistry, and specific misconceptions about introductory and physical chemistry concepts. They provide a visualization of cognitive structure. When a student draws a concept map for chemical reactions, the result is a model of the student's conceptual framework for understanding the concepts and propositions of chemical change. Developing a valid method for scoring student concept maps will enable educators to evaluate student knowledge free of the bias and arbitrariness often associated with qualitative reviews. Concept maps may be evaluated quantitatively by categories. The category score for propositional validity reflects student reasoning ability in chemistry. The score significantly correlates with formal reasoning
ability in chemistry. The category score for hierarchical structure reflects the amount of chemical information possessed by a student. Students who possess large amounts of information about chemistry, position more vocabulary words within each hierarchical level than the student who demonstrates limited chemical knowledge. It is suggested that the greater a student's understanding of introductory chemistry concepts the more strands are employed in mapping concepts and propositions related to chemical reactions. Low strand count reflected specific misconceptions about Avogadro's Number, the mole concept, and the Law of Conservation of Matter. (Author/MM)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (Lake Geneva, WI, April 7-10, 1991).


Publication type:
Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Schroeder, E. (1994). Navigating through Hypertext: Navigational Technique, Individual Differences and Learning. Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Nashville, TN.

Schroeder, E. and B. Grabowski (1995). "Patterns of Exploration and Learning with Hypermedia." Journal of Educational Computing Research 13(4): 313-335.
navigational study strategies & extent of lesson coverage & attitudes about learning, novice hypermedia users, implications for instructional design
Abstract:
Spatial navigational techniques have been proposed to assist hypermedia users in discerning the structure of the content, facilitating both the organization and integration of new information. In this study, 113 novice hypermedia users tended to use a fairly passive strategy for selecting their movement through the system, based more on screen position rather than deliberate conceptual choices, whether they had a graphical browser for navigation or just hotwords in the text. Most Ss made a deliberate effort to view all screens but often felt confused. Suggestions are made for improving navigational aids based on path data analysis, survey data, and user interviews.

Schuster, P. M. (2000). "Concept Mapping: Reducing Clinical Care Plan Paperwork and Increasing Learning." Nurse Educator 25(2): 76-81.

Schvaneveldt, R. W., F. T. Durso, et al. (1985). "Measuring the structure of expertise." International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 23: 699-728.

Schwartz, N., L. Ellsworth, et al. (1998). "Accessing prior knowledge to remember text: a comparison of advance organizers and maps." Contemporary Educational Psychology 23: 65-89.

Schwartz, D. L., G. Biswas, et al. (2002). Teachable Agents and Student Learning. American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
Abstract:
We present research on a new software design, Teachable Agents. Students taught an agent about cellular metabolism by drawing a concept map. Students posed questions about what they had taught, which the agent answered using generic AI techniques. Students observed their agents' answers and chains of reasoning via text and graphics. Compared to writing a summary, the agent helped students organize and assess the implications of their knowledge, and it helped them revise the agent's knowledge (and their own) accordingly.

Scmid, R. and G. Telaro (1990). "Concept mapping as an instructional strategy for high school biology." Journal of Educational Research.

Seligman, L., P. Lehner, et al. (1999). "Information Monitoring for Decision Support." The EDGE Newsletter.

Selvin, A. (1999). "Supporting collaborative analysis and design with hypertext functionality." Journal of Digital Information 1(4): online?
http://jodi.ecs.soton.ac.uk.Articles/v01/i04/Selvin.

Shaka, F. and B. Bitner (1996). Construction and validation of a rubirc for scoring concept maps. Association for the Education of Teachers of Science.

Shapiro, A. (1998). "Promoting active learning: the role of system structure in learning from hypertext." Human-Computer Interaction 13: 1-35.

Shapiro, A. M. (1998). "Promoting Active Learning: The Role of System Structure in Learning from Hypertext." Human-Computer Interaction 13(1): 1-35.
Abstract:
This study of 72 undergraduates examined whether theories of learning from text may be extended to hypertext and the effectiveness of hypertext on learning. Participants worked with either a highly structured, unstructured, or linear hypertext system. Results indicated that less structured systems promoted more active processing and a deeper level of learning but that hypertext had limited educational benefits. (PEN)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Sharples, M. (1991). "Computer-based tutoring of visual concepts: From novice to expert." Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 7: 123-132.

Shavelson, R. J., H. Lang, et al. (1994). On concept maps as potential "authentic" assessments in science. Los Angeles, CRESST.

Shavelson, R. J. and M. A. Ruiz-Primo (2000). On the Psychometrics of Assessing Science Understanding. Assessing Science Understanding. J. Mintzes, J. Wandersee and J. Novak. San Diego, Academic Press: 304-341.

Shum, S. B., A. MacLean, et al. (1997). "Graphical argumentation and design cognition." Human-Computer Interaction 12: 267-300.

Shum, S. B. (1998). Negotiating the construction of organizational memories. Information Technology for Knowledge Management. U. M. Borghoff and R. Pareschi. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.

Sizmur, S. and J. Osborne (1997). "Learning processes and collaborative concept mapping." International journal of science education 19(10): 1117-1137.

Slotte, V. and K. Lonka (1999). "Spontaneous Concept Maps Aiding the Understanding of Scientific Concepts." International Journal of Science Education 21(5): 515-523??
p515-3.
Abstract:
Evaluates concept maps (n=36) spontaneously constructed by applicants in a medical school entrance examination for content of relevant terms and the number of interrelationships indicated. Finds that merely including the relevant concepts in a map has little effect on the comprehension of those concepts, but map complexity is strongly related to the understanding of scientific texts. Contains 37 references. (Author/WRM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Smith, B. B. (1983). "Cognitive Structure of Technical Knowledge: A Free Association Methodology."
Abstract:
Research was undertaken to determine if the free association methodology was a reliable and valid technique to map hierarchical associative technical knowledge. A sample consisting of four flexible and four inflexible workers in the radio/television repair and the mobile radio repair occupations responded to 163 radio and television words and 184 words for mobile radio communications, respectively. The free association responses for the four flexible and the four inflexible workers in each of the two occupations were pooled and subsequently subjected to a hierarchical factor analysis procedure. The associative methodology produced technical conceptual maps with face and content validity for flexible and inflexible workers in each occupation. Flexible workers had a larger and different technical vocabulary, and there were visual differences in the number and structures for the flexible workers and inflexible workers. Results suggested
that the free association procedure is quite reliable and capable of producing technical associative structures for a technical field showing differences between groups of workers at different levels of proficiency and capable of producing a conceptual map of technical content that may be useful in curriculum development. (The instrument and some figures are appended.) (YLB)


Notes:
Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (67th, Montreal, Canada, April 11-15, 1983).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Smolenski, P., B. Bell, et al. (1987). Constraint-based hypertext for argumentation. Hypertext '87, New York, Association for Computing Machinery.

Somekh, B. and M. Pearson (2001). "Children's Representations of New Technology: Mismatches between the Public Education Curriculum and Socio- Cultural Learning."
Abstract:
The REPRESENTATION Project, 1998-2000, carried out research within elementary schools in six European countries: Denmark, France, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, and England. Altogether, 31 schools participated, ranging from large inner city schools in Paris and Amsterdam, to a 20-student school in a Greek village. In each school, one class of students and their teacher was selected to participate. The students were all aged between 10 and 12. This paper reports on research carried out in England within the framework of REPRESENTATION. The overarching objective of the project was to deepen understanding of the way in which fifth grade students perceived new technologies and related concepts. The specific objectives addressed by the English research and reported in this paper were: to deepen understanding and track the development of fifth grade students' conceptual representations of new technology over the period of one year; and to
explore the role of the school, the home, and wider socio-cultural experience, including national culture, in the development of students' knowledge of new technology. (Contains 31 references.) (MES)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10- 14, 2001). Some figures may not reproduce clearly.


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Songer, C. and J. Mintzes (1994). "Understanding cellular respiration: An analysis of conceptual change in college biology." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 31(6): 621-637.

Sowa, J. F., in (1992). Conceptual Graphs Summary. Conceptual Structures: Current Research and Practice. P. Eklund, T. Nagle, J. Nagle and L. Gerholz, Ellis Horwood: 3-52.

Sowa, J. F. (1984). Conceptual structures: Information processing in mind and machine. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley.

Sowa, J. F. (1993). Lexical structure and conceptual structure. Semantics and the lexicon. J. Pustejovsky. Boston, Kluwer. 49: Ch 12.

Sowa, J. F. (????). "There's more to logic than the predicate calculus."

[Sowa88] Sowa, J. F., Lexical Structures and Conceptual Structures, in J. Pustejovsky (Ed.) Semantics in the Lexicon, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.

Spaulding, D. T. (1989). "Concept mapping and achievement in high school biology and chemistry." unpublished dissertation, Florida Institute of Technology.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on
chemistry and biology student achievement of the concept mapping
technique. The relationships between past achievement (as measured by
the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills) and student achievement (as
measured by posttest scores) were also studied. Also of interest was
the determination of whether the concept mapping technique was more
suitable for either biology or chemistry.

The study was conducted during the spring term of 1985 at a public high
school in east central Florida. Intact classes of average ability
students (107 biology and 44 chemistry) were administered pretests one
week before the study began. This test covered content that was to be
taught during the upcoming three week unit. Beginning with the next
class period after the pretest, the treatment group was taught the
concept mapping technique for a period of one week.

For the next three weeks all the students (four biology sections and
two chemistry sections) received regular course instruction. However,
fifteen minutes before the end of each class period, the treatment and
control groups received a list of concepts covered during the class
period. The treatment groups were asked to construct concept maps while
the control groups were asked to define the concepts. Maps and
definitions were turned in at the end of the period to be graded and
returned to the students the following day. After three weeks,
posttests were given over the material covered.

Based on data provided by the tests as analyzed by ANCOVA via MRC,
there was no significant difference in achievement between students
assigned concept maps and students required to complete concept
definitions. There was a significant interaction effect on achievement
between concept maps versus concept definitions and prior achievement
as measured by CTBS scores. The CTBS treatment/control interaction
revealed that students with "lower" CTBS scores did better on the
posttest when using concept maps and the students with "higher" CTBS
scores did better when merely defining the concepts.

There was no significant interaction effect on achievement between
students who constructed concept maps versus defined concepts, and
content area (biology or chemistry).

Speel, P., N. Shadbolt, et al. (1999). "Knowledge mapping for industrial purposes."

Srinivasan, U., A. H. H. Ngu, et al. (2000). " Managing Heterogeneous Information Systems through Discovery and Retrieval of Generic Concepts." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51(8): 707-723.
Abstract:
Introduces a conceptual integration approach to heterogeneous databases or information systems that exploits the similarity in metalevel information and performs metadata mining on database objects to discover a set of concepts that serve as a domain abstraction and provide a conceptual layer above existing legacy systems. Presents results of clustering algorithms. (Author/LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Stanford, X. (2001). "Map Your Knowledge Strategy." Information Outlook Jun 2001 v5 n6 p 5(6): 18-20,22,25-26,28.
Abstract:
Discusses the history and uses of knowledge mapping, defined as any visualization of knowledge beyond textual for the purpose of eliciting, codifying, sharing, using, and expanding knowledge. Applies knowledge mapping to organizations, including the mapping of a knowledge management strategy. (LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Stanton, N., A. Correia, et al., Eds. (2000). Efficacy of a map on search, orientation and access behavior in a hypermedia system. Computers and Education.

Stanton, N., R. Taylor, et al. (1992). "Maps as navigational aids in hypertext environments." Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 1(4): 431-444.

Starr, M. L. and J. S. Krajcik (1990). "Concept maps as a heuristic for science curriculum development: Towards improvement in process and product." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 987-1000.

Stewart, H. A. (1985). "Should concept maps be scored numerically?" European Journal of Science Education 7(1): 73-81.

Stilborne, L. "Concept mapping as a tool for information sharing online."
is a test of mapping and collaboration using Smart Idea

Stoddart, T., R. Abrams, et al. (2000). "Concept Maps as Assessment in Science Inquiry Learning--A Report of Methodology." International Journal of Science Education 22(12): 1221-1246.
Abstract:
Increasing availability of technology in schools means that more teachers will have the potential to implement student-centered, inquiry-based approaches to learning. Assessing what each student knows in a broad subject area is difficult. Describes methods to address this problem including tests and reliability. (Author/SAH)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Stow, W. (1997). "Concept Mapping: A Tool for Self-Assessment?" Primary Science Review 49: 12-15.
Abstract:
Describes a study to investigate how effectively concept mapping can be used to focus children on their own learning in science and to provide a way of describing their own achievements. Findings indicate that some children were able to identify specific targets for future learning. Motivation and metacognition were the main areas of benefit. (PVD)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Stoyanov, S. and P. Kommers (1999). "Agent-Support for Problem Solving through Concept-Mapping." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 10(3-4): 401-425.
Presents an experimental verification of a hypothetical construct explaining the basic mechanism behind the behavior of an intelligent agent implemented in the Solution, Mapping, Intelligent, Learning Environment (SMILE) performance supported system. Explains the SMILE concept mapping method and its role as a problem- solving tool. (Author/LRW)


Notes:
Special Issue: Intelligent Agents for Educational Computer-Aided Systems.

Stoyanov, S. (1997). "Concept Mapping as a Learning Method in Hypermedia Design." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3-4): 309-323.
Abstract:
Provides theoretical evidence supporting the assumption that cognitive mapping is an effective learning method for students' hypermedia design activities. Checks the effects of student hypermedia design assignments in an ill-structured environment against the uniqueness of cognitive mapping, mapping styles, and cognitive mapping as a creative problem-solving technique. (Author/AEF)


Notes:
Theme issue: "Concept Mapping."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142)

Stoyanov, S., L. Aroyo, et al. (1999). SMILE Creator: A Web-based Tool for Problem Solving. WebNet.

Stoyanova, N. and P. Kommers (2002). "Concept mapping as a medium of shared cognition in computer-supported collaborative problem solving." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 13(1-2): 111-133.

Sturm, J. and J. Rankin-Erickson (2002). "Effects of hand-drawn and computer generated concept mapping on the expository writing of middle school students with learning disabilities." Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 17(2): 124-139.

Suen, H. K., B. Sonak, et al. (1997). "Concept map as scaffolding for authentic assessment." Psychological Reports Vol 81(3): 734.
proposes the use of concept maps in a 3-step assessment design to
maximize the validity and generalizability of authentic assessments.

Sugimoto, M., K. Hori, et al. (1996). "A system to visualize different viewpoints for supporting researchers creativity." Knowledge-Based Sysytems 9: 369-376.
automatic elicitation of viewpoints of journal and conference papers.
visualization of semantic relations among papers
useful for creativity aird, communication aid, information retrieval
demonstration of effectiveness

Sungur, S., C. Tekkaya, et al. (2001). "The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Students' Understanding of the Human Circulatory System." School Science and Mathematics 101(2): 91-101.
Abstract:
Investigates the contribution of conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction to 10th- grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system. Indicates that the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction produced a positive effect on students' understanding of concepts. Concludes that students in the experimental group performed better with regard to the human circulatory system. (Contains 34 references.) (Author/ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Sutcliffe, A. (1985). Use of conceptual maps as human-computer interfaces. Proceedings of the British Computer Society.

Suthers, D. D. "Collaborative representations: Supporting face-to-face and online knowledge building discourse."

Suthers, D. D. and C. Hundhausen (2001). Learning by constructing collaborative representations: An empirical comparison of three alternatives. European Perspectives on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning., Universiteit Masstricht, Maastrict, the Netherlands.

Suthers, D. D. (2001). "Towards a Systematic Study of Representational Guidance for Collaborative Learning Systems." Journal of Universal Computer Science 7(3).

Sweller, J. (1988). "Cognitive load during problem solving: effects on learning." Cognitive Science 12: 257-285.

Swensvold, M. S. and J. T. Wilson (1990). "The interaction of verbal ability with concept mapping in learning from a chemistry laboratory activity." Science Education 74(4): 474-480.

Taber, K. S. (1994). "Student Reaction on Being Introduced To Concept Mapping." Physics Education 29(5): 276-281.
Abstract:
Reports the comments of students in an A-level revision course in physics on being asked to draw a concept map for energy. Students' comments on the task were generally positive and related to their feelings about the task and their own learning. (DDR)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Tamassia, R., C. Batini, et al. (1988). "Automatic graph drawing and readability of diagrams." IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, & Cybernetics. SMC18-1: 61-79.

Tan, S. C. (2000). " The Effects of Incorporating Concept Mapping into Computer Assisted Instruction." Journal of Educational Computing Research 23(2): 113-131.
Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of incorporating concept mapping into computer assisted instruction with tenth grade students in Singapore. Discusses results of a chemistry achievement test that suggest that concept mapping accompanying a computer assisted tutorial program can enhance their learning, and considers future research. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/LRW)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Taricani, E. (2000). "Influences of Concept Mapping and Learning Styles on Learning."
Abstract:
Concept mapping is a technique for visually representing the structure of information, concepts, and the relationships between them. Concept maps are useful tools that help students learn about how they structure knowledge while supporting the process of knowledge construction or metaknowledge. This paper discusses the effect of concept mapping with different levels of knowledge to assist those with different learning styles. Discussion is as follows. After a brief definition of concept mapping in learning, the two broad classes of learning/cognitive styles-field dependent and field independent-are outlined. Discussion then moves to Ausubel's (1963) Meaningful Learning Theory, and how concept maps can foster meaningful learning. Next, a definition is provided of the principles of Component Display Theory (CDT), which is concerned with teaching individual concepts or principles, and classifies learning along two dimensions: content (facts, concepts,
procedures, and principles) and performance (remembering, using, and generalities). Finally, a study on the effects of concept mapping on learning is briefly discussed. (Contains 10 references.) (AEF)


Notes:
In: Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (23rd, Denver, CO, October 25-28, 2000). Volumes 1- 2; see IR 020 712.


Publication type:
Reports-Descriptive (141); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Thomson, J., J. Greer, et al. (2001). "Automatic generation of instructional hypermedia with hypermedia with APHID." Interacting with Computers 631-654.

Thomson, C. J. (1997). "Concept Mapping as a Means of Evaluating Primary School Technology Programmes." International Journal of Technology and Design Education 7(1): 97-110.
Abstract:
Concept mapping provides a means for teachers and students to represent their understanding of an area of knowledge. Information from two primary schools suggests that it can be used as a means of evaluating a school's elementary technology program. Information about attitudes/perceptions of technology was constructed into a concept map format. (Author/AEF)


Notes:
Journal availability: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061.


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Thorsden, M. (1991). A comparison of two tools for cognitive task analysis: Concept mapping and the critical decision method. Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting.

Thorsland, M. a. N., J. (1974). "The identification and significance of intuitive and analytic problem solving approaches among college students." Science Education 58(2): 245-265.

Timpson, W. M. (1999). Metateaching and the Instructional Map. Teaching Techniques/Strategies Series, Volume 1.
Abstract:
This book describes a conceptual framework, the "Instructional Map"--a metaphor for envisioning the interconnectedness of teacher and student, teaching and learning, and content and process--that can help teachers plan, sort their way through course material and instructional options, interact with students, and reflect upon progress made and what remains to be done. The first portion of the book describes the Instructional Map and how it can help teachers to think more systematically about their instruction, goals for student learning, getting students to be more critical and creative, and balancing what they present with what they want in the way of active student participation. The next section touches on parallel work--such as concept mapping and Ausubel's advance organizer--drawing on Gagne's work on learning, rules, and higher-order rules, as well as Perry's research on cognitive development. Metacognition (thinking about thinking) and
metateaching are discussed. The next portion explains the Instructional Map in greater detail, and offers other uses for it. A description of how the Instructional Map can be used to provide useful feedback to teachers and students is provided, as well as several examples of using the Instructional Map, to give overviews of different approaches to teaching. (AEF)


Publication type:
Books (010); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Toth, E. E., D. D. Suthers, et al. (2002). ""Mapping to Know": The Effects of Representational Guidance and Reflective Assessment on Scientific Inquiry." Science Education 86(2): 264-286.
Title:
Document no.:
EJ643859
FOUND IN:
Documents an instructional methodology to teach a fundamental reasoning skill during scientific inquiry: the evaluation of empirical evidence against multiple hypotheses. Uses an instructional framework with iterative cycles that lends itself to authentic scientific inquiry by providing a nontraditional approach to three aspects of learning: (1) activities students are engaged in; (2) tools students use; and (3) assessment of the outcomes. (Contains 35 references.) (Author/YDS)
Publication type:

Trent, S. C., E. Pernell, Jr., et al. (1998). "Using Concept Maps To Measure Conceptual Change in Preservice Teachers Enrolled in a Multicultural Education/Special Education Course." Remedial and Special Education 19(1): 16-31.
Abstract:
A study used concept maps to trace conceptual change in 30 preservice teachers enrolled in an introductory multicultural/special education course at Michigan State University. Results indicate significant quantitative and qualitative differences between pre- and post-measures. Students constructed post-concept maps that included more concepts, were more specific, and were more integrated. (Author/CR)


Notes:
Theme issue: Multicultural Teacher Education in Special Education.


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Trochim, W. M. (1989). "Concept mapping: Soft science or hard art?" Evaluation & Program Planning 12(1): 87-110.

Trochim, W. M. (1989). "An introduction to concept mapping for planning and evaluation." Evaluation & Program Planning 1989, Vol 12(1), p 1-16 12(1): 1-16.

Troncoso, C., A. Lavalle, et al. (1998). "An Alternative Method To Assess Student's Knowledge about the Concept of Limit in Engineering Teaching."
Abstract:
The present work has the purpose of showing the evolution of topics or mathematical concepts that are both relevant and with marked grades of abstraction. In this report is specifically described the utilization of metacognitive tools. These include concept maps, the Gowin heuristic vee, and the clinical interview. They are efficient in showing which concepts students of engineering at Comahue University have mastered. The students had approved the corresponding course. The clinical interview, the conceptual maps, and the application of the UVE permit students to make an autoanalysis of their knowledge about the topic. Also, it permits the professors a critical reflection of how students are achieving their objectives, the causes of that, and the change that they should carry out in order to achieve meaningful learning of such a substantial topic. (Contains 32 references.) (Author/YDS)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Tests, evaluation instruments (160)

Trowbridge, J. E. and J. H. Wandersee (1996). "How Do Graphics Presented during College Biology Lessons Affect Students' Learning?" Journal of College Science Teaching 26(1): 54-57.
Abstract:
Explores the use of concept mapping in a college course on evolution and the effect of the use of graphics in the instructional process on the construction of a concept map. Results indicate a positive correlation between concept map scores and the number of graphics used by the instructor during lecture. (JRH)


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Trowbridge, J. E. and J. Wandersee (1994). "Identifying critical junctures in learning in a college course on evolution." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 31(5): 459-473.

Trowbridge, J. E. and J. H. Wandersee (1998). Theory-driven graphic organizers. Teaching Science for Understanding. J. Mintzes, J. Wandersee and J. Novak. San Diego, Academic Press.

Trumpower, D. (??). Schema acquisition and solution strategy in statistics problem solving.

Truscott, D., B. L. Paulson, et al. (1999). "Studying Participants' Experiences Using Concept Mapping." Alberta Journal of Educational Research 45(3): 320-323.
Abstract:
Concept mapping is a participant-based methodology that involves three processes: participant generation of ideas or experiences about a specific question, grouping together responses through an unstructured card sort by participants, and statistical analysis of card-sort results using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. A research example concerning counseling experiences is included. (SV)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Trygestad, J. (1997). Students' Conceptual Thinking in Geography.
Abstract:
This study explores students' conceptual thinking by examining the extent and complexity of their concept identification and organization in geography. The study investigated students' conceptual thinking through identification of salient geography concepts and construction of individual concept maps at three academic achievement and grade levels. The study involved 66 geography students from the 6th-, 9th-, and 12th-grade. Results from the study indicate students' conceptual thinking in geography is reflected in their achievement and grade levels. Other variables may be important contributors to students' conceptual thinking but those were not investigated. ANOVA results indicate not only increased conceptual understanding with increased achievement and grade levels, but also with increased performance on background knowledge, concept identification, and concept map construction instruments. Correlations among knowledge questions, number of
concepts, and concept mapping scores also were statistically significant. In addition, attitude towards geography was statistically significant for achievement and grade; travel experience was statistically significant for achievement. (EH)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24- 28, 1997).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Tsai, C.-C. and C.-m. Huang (2001). "Development of cognitive structures and information processing strategies of elementary school students learning about biological reproduction." Journal of Biological Education 36(1): 21-26.

Tsai, C.-C. (2000). "Enhancing Science Instruction: The Use of 'Conflict Maps'." International Journal of Science Education 22(3): 285-302.
Abstract:
Argues for using "conflict maps" as a way of enhancing science teaching and learning. The conflict map emphasizes not only the use of discrepant events, but also the resolution of conflict between students' alternative conceptions and the scientific conception. Discusses the conflict map as an instructional aid for teachers or as a metacognitive tool for learners. (Contains 49 references.) (Author/WRM)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Tsai, C. C., S. Lin, et al. (2001). "Students' use of web-based concept map testing and strategies for learning." Journal of Computer-Assisted Learning 17: 72-84.

Tsai, C. C., S. Lon, et al. (2000). "Taiwanese high school students' views of using a WWW-based concept map testing system." International Journal of Instructional Media 27(4): 363-368.

Vail, E. (1999). "Knowledge mapping: getting started with knowledge management." Information Systems Management 16(4): 16-23.

Van Boxtel, C., J. Van Der Linden, et al. (1997). "Collaborative Construction of Conceptual Understanding: Interaction Processes and Learning Outcomes Emerging from a Concept Mapping and a Poster Task." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3-4): 341-361.
Abstract:
Reports results from an experiment in which interaction processes and learning outcomes of dyads working on different cooperative tasks within the domain of electricity were compared; a concept mapping task was compared with a poster task. Subjects were 40 students ages 16-17 years old. Students working on a concept map talked more intensively about concepts than students working on a poster. (AEF)


Notes:
Theme issue: "Concept Mapping."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Van Boxtel, C., J. Van Der Linden, et al. (2000). "Collaborative learning tasks and the elaboration of conceptual knowledge." Learning and Instruction 10: 311-330.

van Boxtel, C., J. van der Linden, et al. (2000). "Collaborative Learning Tasks and the Elaboration of Conceptual Knowledge." Learning and Instruction 10: 311-330.
Abstract:
Studied the influence of task characteristics on the characteristics of elaboration of conceptual knowledge in social interaction using 40 secondary school students working in dyads on a collaborative task in 1 of 4 conditions. A phase of individual preparation created better learning results. In the concept mapping condition, elaboration was related to individual learning outcomes. (SLD)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

van Hell, J. G. and A. M. B. de Groot (1998). "Conceptual Representation in Bilingual Memory: Effects of Concreteness and Cognate Status in Word Association." Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1(3): 193-211.
Abstract:
A word association experiment examined conceptual representation in bilingual memory. Dutch-English bilinguals associated twice to nouns and verbs that varied on concreteness and cognate status. Findings suggest that conceptual representation in bilingual memory depends on word-type and grammatical class: concrete translations, cognates, and noun translations, noncognates, and verb translations. (Author/VWL)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

VanLeuvan, P. (1997). "Using Concept Maps of Effective Teaching as a Tool in Supervision." Journal of Research and Development in Education 30(4): 261-277.
Abstract:
This study used concept maps to investigate changes in beliefs regarding teacher effectiveness as students progressed through student teaching. Participants created maps at the beginning and end of their practicum, which enabled them to examine their beliefs and were helpful to their supervisor. Postmap, but not premap, characteristics moderately correlated with components of teaching performance. (SM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Vekiri, I. (2002). "What is the value of graphical displays in learning." Educational Psychology Review 14(3): 261-311.

Venezky, R. L. (2001). "Procedures for Evaluating the Impact of Complex Educational Interventions." Journal of Science Education and Technology 10(1): 17-30.

Abstract:
Points out difficult issues for program evaluation when information and computer technology (ICT) is a component of major school reform. Describes two basic procedures to assist program developers and evaluators in gaining control of such complex interventions in education. (Author/YDS)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Verdi, M., J. Johnson, et al. (1997). "Organized spatial displays and texts: effects of presentation order and display type on learning outcomes." Journal of Experimental Education 65(4): 303-317.
presentation order & display type, recall of organized spatial displays & texts & diagram features, middle school & college students
Abstract:
In 2 experiments, students were shown a visual display and then a related text passage, or vice versa. The Kulhavy model of text learning with organized spatial displays led the authors to predict that the students who viewed a visual display before reading related text would recall significantly more information from the stimulus materials than would the students who read the text first. The prediction was supported in both experiments: 2 populations (112 college students and 100 middle school students) participated, and 2 types of visual displays (geographical maps and scientific diagrams) were used. In Exp 2, the authors predicted that a scientific diagram altered to have map-like properties would result in better acquisition of knowledge than an unaltered scientific diagram would. The groups that studied the map-like diagram earner higher scores on various measures of knowledge acquisition, but the difference was not statistically different. Several explanations for this result are offered.
((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)

Vilburg, T. (1996). Using Concept Maps in a Sensation and Perception Course. National Institute for the Teaching of Psychology, St. Petersburg Beach, FL.

Volk, C., D. Ritchie, et al. (1999). Comparison of Generative Learning Strategies.
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two generative learning strategies, concept maps and manipulation of objects, and to determine if either works better with individual learners or in cooperative learning groups. A total of 80 sixth-grade students in science education were randomly assigned to group or individual conditions and to one of the two experimental treatments. Experimental treatments were changed between first and second post-test. Long-term retention was evaluated with a third and delayed post- test. Students starting with concept maps showed higher achievement on delayed post-test than students beginning with manipulation of objects. No difference was found between students working as individuals or cooperative student teams. Furthermore, a significant interaction between generative learning strategy and grouping condition was revealed. Implications for sequencing generative learning strategies are discussed.
(Author)


Notes:
In: Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology [AECT] (21st, Houston, TX, February 10-14, 1999); see IR 019 753.

Wallace, J. and J. Mintzes (1990). "The concept map as a research tool: Exploring conceptual change in biology." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 1033-1052.
concurrent validity of concept maps, assessment of conceptual &
knowledge level change on marine life zones following computer instruction,
college students in science education
Abstract: Examined the concurrent validity of concept maps as vehicles for
documenting and exploring conceptual change in biology. 91 university
students enrolled in an elementary science methods course were assigned to 1
of 2 treatment groups. Ss completed an inventory that assayed knowledge of
life zones in the ocean and then constructed a concept map on the same topic.
Ss in the experimental group subsequently received 45 min of
computer-assisted instruction on marine life zones; controls received
equivalent exposure to an unrelated topic. Upon completing the instructional
sequence, Ss again completed the inventory and developed a postinstruction
concept map on marine life zones. Experimental Ss showed significant and
substantial changes in the complexity and propositional structure of the
knowledge base, as revealed in concept maps; no such changes were found in
controls.

Wandersee, J. H. (1990). "Concept mapping and the cartography of cognition." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 923-936.

Ward, R. E. and J. Wandersee (2000). " Roundhouse Diagrams." Science Scope 24(4): 17-21.
Abstract:
Students must understand key concepts through reasoning, searching out related concepts, and making connections within multiple systems to learn science. The Roundhouse diagram was developed to be a concise, holistic, graphic representation of a science topic, process, or activity. Includes sample Roundhouse diagrams, a diagram checklist, and guidelines for diagram construction. (SAH)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Ward, A. M. (1988). "Semantic Mapping in the Adult Learning Center."

Abstract:
Semantic mapping, which involves the application of vocabulary meanings, increases cognitive processing, and develops the cognitive structure, is recommended for use with literacy students in adult learning centers. Semantic mapping can be used as a prereading or prewriting stimulus, or as a postreading check of comprehension. Also, developing postreading maps helps motivate literacy students, since these maps are a graphic illustration of how much the reader has learned from the text. As a prewriting activity, semantic mapping obliges students to brainstorm and organize their thoughts before writing. Most importantly, semantic mapping is highly motivating for adult students because it allows them to interact with teachers regarding the context of the lesson, rather than merely on a specific point of skill development. The ultimate goal of semantic mapping is to introduce the students to a technique that they can use regularly to organize what
they have read, relate this content to what they already know, and expand their store of knowledge through reading. Semantic mapping was used effectively at the Marion County Adult Learning Center (West Virginia) as a prereading, postreading, and prewriting activity with a group of students, all of whom read at less than the sixth-grade level. (Seven references and a student-developed semantic map are attached.) (ARH)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Reading Association (33rd, Toronto, Canada, May 1-6, 1988).


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Warfield, J. N. (1973). "Binary Matrices in System Modeling." IEEE Trans. on Systems Man & Cybernetics SMC-3(5): 441-448.
73/004 Journal article
Matrices Transitivity Structural-modeling

Primarily a tutorial on the use of binary matrices in system modeling, this paper introduces a method for developing a binary matrix enroute to a structural model of a system, with a procedure that permits transitivity to be used in developing the matrix.

Warrick, J. (2000). "Bringing Science History to Life." Science Scope 23(7-8): 23-25.
Abstract:
Introduces a project that focuses on understanding scientific inventions and reflecting upon the creativity involved. Explains teacher preparation, locating accidental inventions and discoveries, and the daily bases of the project. Also provides information on student assessment. (YDS)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Webb, N. (1989). "Peer interaction and learning in small groups." International Journal of Educational Research 13: 21-39.

Webb, N. (1995). Testing a theoretical model of student interaction and learning in small groups. Interaction co-operative groups. R. Hertz-Lazorowitz and N. Miller. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Weijze, R. C. d. (1998). "Concept Mapping for Concept Engineering." International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-long learning 8(1/2): 89-108.

Weisenberg, R. C. (1997). "Appropriate Technology for the Classroom--Using "Post-it Notes" as an Active Learning Tool." Journal of College Science Teaching 29(6): 385-388.
Discusses the use of Post-it Notes as effective teaching devices. Presents activities that use Post-it Notes including concept mapping, molecular modeling, group activities illustrating multi-step biological processes, and genetics activities. Highlights the use of the constructivist approach. (JRH)

Weiss, L. B. and S. P. Levison (2000). "Tools for Integrating Women's Health into Medical Education: Clinical Cases and Concept Mapping." Academic Medicine 75(11): 1081-1086.
Abstract:
Describes two teaching tools, case-based learning and concept mapping and how they support cross-disciplinary, multidisciplinary , and interdisciplinary learning as they promote the integration of sex- and gender-based science into the medical curriculum. Outlines the process of case development at the Medical College of Pennsylvania Hahnemann University. (SLD)


Notes:
Theme issue titled "A New and Wider View--Women's Health as a Catalyst for Reform of Medical Education."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

West, D., J. R. Pomeroy, et al. (2000). "Critical thinking in graduate medical education." Journal of the American Medical Association 284(9): 1105-1110.

Westbrook, S. L. (1998). "Examining the Conceptual Organization of Students in an Integrated Algebra and Physical Science Class." School Science and Mathematics 98(2): 84-92.
Abstract:
Compares the conceptual organization of students in an integrated algebra and physical science class (SAM 9) with that of students in a discipline-specific physical science class (PSO). Analysis of students' concept maps indicates that the SAM9 students used a greater number of procedural linkages to connect mathematics and science concepts than did PSO students. (Author/CCM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Evaluative/feasibility (142)

White, R. and R. Gunstone (1992). Probing understanding. New York, Falmer Press.

Wiegmann, D., D. Dansereau, et al. (1992). "Effects of knowledge map characteristics on information processing." Contemporary Educational Psychology 17: 136-155.
knowledge map configuration & format & link structure, encoding &
retrieval of information, college students
Abstract: Examined the impact of 3 parameters of map construction on
knowledge acquisition. Exp 1, with 37 undergraduates, investigated spatial
configuration; Exp 2, with 34 undergraduates, investigated map format; and
Exp 3, with 31 undergraduates, investigated link structure. Results reveal
that the way the maps were constructed influenced both the encoding and the
retrieval of the information in the maps and that these effects were mediated
by the users' spatial and verbal abilities. Findings suggest that variations
in map configuration, format, and link structure can mediate the stages of
spatial/verbal processing outlined in a model developed by J. B. Lambiotte et
al (see record 1991-02661-001).

Wilcox, S. K. and M. Sahloff (1998). "Another Perspective on Concept Maps: Empowering Students." Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School May 3(7): 464-469.
Abstract:
Presents the use of concept mapping as an assessment tool augmented by an additional activity. Discusses how this elaboration of a concept map contains potential information on what students are coming to understand and helps the teacher to decide the direction of future instruction. Presents examples of students' concept maps. (ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080)

Wilkes, L., K. Cooper, et al. (1999). "Concept Mapping: Promoting Science Learning in BN Learners in Australia." Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 30(1): 37-44.
Abstract:
Concept mapping used in a science unit of a baccalaureate nursing program helped students become independent learners and gain confidence in science knowledge; instructor time was freed to work with students with learning difficulties. Issues included balancing science content with mapping techniques and effectively assessing learning. (SK)


Notes:
Journal availability: Slack Inc., 6900 Grove Rd., Thorofare, NJ 08086.


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Willerman and Mac Harg (1991). "The concept map as an advance organizer." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 28(8): 705-711.
concept map as advance organizer, science achievement, 8th
graders
Abstract: 40 of 82 8th-grade students in 4 science classes completed a
concept map at the beginning of a 2-wk science unit under the teacher's
supervision. At the end of the unit, a test was administered to the
experimental and control groups. A 1-tailed t test indicated that the use
of concept mapping as an advance organizer produced a significant academic
gain. Three possible explanations are suggested: (1) Ss may have been helped
by the organization and visual relationship of the advance organizer, (2) its
construction by a teacher may have made the concept map more complete and
accurate, or (3) a concept map development by the teacher may have provided
the students with greater direction for learning the concepts and facts that
overlapped with the teacher's final test.

Williams, C. G. (1995). Concept Maps as Research Tools in Mathematics.
Abstract:
Reform efforts in mathematics aim to increase conceptual understanding, an aim that can be supported through concept maps. This study compared the conceptual knowledge of function held by college students in reform and traditional calculus sections at a large state university. Fourteen students from reform sections and 14 from traditional sections served as subjects. A primary task was the construction of a concept map of function. Four instructors of reform sessions and four from traditional sections also completed concept maps. Quantitative analyses of the concept maps showed that the core contents from both student groups matched poorly with instructors' core concepts. Qualitative analysis of the student maps revealed differences between the student groups, with the reform group using terminology common in the reform text and using fewer algorithmic references than the traditional group. The traditional group's maps contained more algorithmic
references to hand-graphing techniques. Maps of both groups were considerably less well-structured than experts' maps and lacked their higher level categories. (Contains 9 figures, 10 tables, and 35 references.) (Author/SLD)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995).

Williams, M. A. (1997). "Integrating Concept Mapping into Science Curriculum and Instructional Practice: Teacher Experiences, Observations, and Recommendations for Future Projects." Journal of Interactive Learning Research 8(3-4): 457-485.
Abstract:
Three self-instructional science modules were developed and pilot tested in the Jamaican secondary education system for the concept mapping, cooperative grouping, and laboratory approaches. Formative evaluation revealed that the modules enhanced teachers' understanding of the Reform Of Secondary Education (R.O.S.E.) methodology; however content of the modules needs to be reduced to facilitate ease of use on the job. (Author/AEF)


Notes:
Theme issue: "Concept Mapping."


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Wilson, J. M. (1998). "Differences in Knowledge Networks about Acids and Bases of Year-12, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Chemistry Students." Research in Science Education 28(4): 429-446.
Abstract:
Differences in the status of ontological categories on the concept maps of secondary-, undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students were analyzed with the "Pathfinder" scaling algorithm and multidimensional scaling. Results indicate differences among groups in the structural significance of abstract process-related nodes and matter-related nodes on the topic of acid-base equilibria. Discusses implications for theories of conceptual change. Contains 48 references. (Author/WRM)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)

Wilson, J. (1994). "Network representations of knowledge of chemical equilibrium: variations with achievement." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 31(10): 1133-1147.

Winitzky, N. and D. Kauchak (1995). "Learning to Teach: Knowledge development in classroom management." Teaching and Teacher Education 11(3): 215-227.

Wright, L. W., H. K. G. Nardini, et al. (1999). " Hierarchical Concept Indexing of Full-Text Documents in the Unified Medical Language System Information Sources Map." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 50(6): 514-523.
Abstract:
Describes methods for applying natural-language processing for automatic concept-based indexing of full text and methods for exploiting the structure and hierarchy of full-text documents to a large collection of full- text documents drawn from the Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database at the National Library of Medicine. Examines how this hierarchical concept indexing can assist both document- and source-level retrieval in a specific project. (Author/AEF)


Publication type:
Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Descriptive (141)

Young, M. J. (1998). Quanitifying the characteristics of knowledge structure representations: A lattice-theoretic framework. Pittsburgh, PA, Learning Research and Development Center, Univerisity of Pittsburgh.

Zapata-Rivera, J., J. Greer, et al. (??). "An XML-Based Tool for Building and Using Conceptual Maps in Education and Training Environments."

Zeileger, R., C. Belisle, et al. (1999). Implementing a Constructivist Approach to Web Navigation support., in proceedings of the ED-MEDIA'99 Conference, Eds.Collis,B., Oliver, R. ,June 19-24, AACE, Seattle,Wa., USA.

Zeileger, R. (1998). Supporting constructive navigation of web space
Workshop on Personalised and Social Navigation in Information Space, Hook, K., Benyon, D., Munro, A., eds., 16th-17th March 98, Stockholm, Sweden
.
: Navigation is the main interaction mode between human and computer in hypermedia structured information spaces such as the World Wide Web. From a human centered point of view, navigation is just another computer mediated activity. Working within the framework brought on by Activity Theory (Vygotsky, Leontiev) and its outcomes for human-computer interaction (Kaptelinin, Nardi) we draw on three basic principles : the hierarchical structure of activity , the principle of internalisation/externalisation and the principle of tool mediation, to propose a new approach to supporting both personal and social navigation coined "constructive navigation support". In this approach, users are given means and are encouraged in the production and sharing of intermediary navigational objects and representations. We present the features of NESTOR, a prototype navigator implementing the proposed approach.

Zeiliger, R. (1996). Concept-map based navigation in educational hypermedia: A case study. ED-MEDIA, Boston.

Zeiliger, R., T. Reggers, et al. (1997). Facilitating Web Navigation : Integrated Tools for Active and Cooperative Learners. in proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computers in Education, ICCE'97, December 97, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.
Abstract. Navigation, whether in the physical world or the World Wide Web, is a process whereby people determine where they are, where everything else is, and how to get to particular objects or places. Psychology of "real world" navigation stresses the importance of landmarks, routes and survey for orientation and there is a need for improved navigational aids on the WWW, particularly in an educational context. The goal of this paper is to show that the integration of three active navigation support techniques, namely graphical overviews, annotations and concept-maps can lead to the design of an environment for active navigation and constructive learning. We present the integrated features incorporated to an extended Web browser - named NESTOR - which was developed to support those ideas. We give a report of the results obtained during a first experiment conducted in an educational context where this prototype browser was used to teach topics in the domain of "audio-visual and learning". Finally we mention future work directions including some issues related to sharing navigational knowledge among cooperative learners, based on the guide metaphor.

Keywords : navigation, annotation, WWW tools, hypermedia, HCI, educational technology, groupware

Zimmaro, D., Zappe, S., Parkes, J. and Suen, H. (1999). Validation of concept maps as a representation of structural knowledge. American Educational Research Association, Montreal.

Zittle, F. J., Jr. (2002). "The effect of Web-based concept mapping on analogical transfer." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences University Microfilms International, US Jun 2002, Vol 62(11-A), p 3695 62 (11-A)(unpublished dissertation, University of New Mexico).
Abstract:
The profitable use of previously learned information relies upon the active transfer of information into an integrative and flexible knowledge structure. Current educational practice assumes that the transfer of knowledge is the natural consequence of instruction. At issue in this study were three fundamental questions: (1) Is transfer a rare event? (2) Is a superior knowledge based both necessary and sufficient to ensure transfer? And (3) will instructional mediation, in the form of a web based fill-in concept map, facilitate analogical transfer? The results of this study suggest that transfer is not common and it was found that when prior knowledge was controlled, participants in the fill-in concept map group performed at over twice the level of groups who either studied the text of an analogical problem or studied a completed concept map of the problem. These findings support previous studies that have suggested that transfer is not necessarily a direct function of declarative knowledge. Additionally, this study proposes a web based fill-in concept map may function as an interactive scaffold for learning and aid in the transfer of learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Zoller, U. (1990). "Students' Misunderstandings and Misconceptions in College Freshman Chemistry (General and Organic)." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 1053-1065.

Zuckerman, J. T. (1998). " Inservice Science Supervisors' Stories: A Source of Practical Knowledge for Student Science Teachers."
Abstract:
This paper aims to demonstrate how listening to and discussing the stories inservice science supervisors tell about a novice science teacher provides an opportunity for student science teachers to construct practical knowledge about teaching. Three levels of practical knowledge of teaching are recognized: (1) rules of practice; (2) practical principles; and (3) images. During individual audiotaped interviews, inservice science supervisors were asked to "Tell me a story about a novice science teacher you've supervised." Thirty- two student teachers listened to the stories, discussed them, and then individually wrote what they came to know from the exercise. A list was made of all the student teachers' comments that embodied a rule, principle, or image. The various pieces of practical knowledge that the student teachers constructed cohered around four themes: the complex nature of teaching; planning and implementing lessons; professional
improvement and growth; and the character, personality, and style of a teacher. Contains 20 references. (DDR)


Notes:
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (71st, San Diego, CA, April 19-22, 1998).


Publication type:
Reports-Research/technical (143); Reports-Speeches,conference papers (150)

Zwaneveld, B. (2000). "Structuring Mathematical Knowledge and Skills by Means of Knowledge Graphs." International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 31(3): 393-314.
Abstract:
Knowledge graphs can be used by students as a tool to visualize the structure of concepts and relations between mathematical concepts. Focuses on the graphs produced by students, their appreciation of the structuring activity, and the relationship between their graphs and test results. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/ASK)


Publication type:
Guides-Teaching (052); Guides-Journal articles (080); Reports-Research/technical (143)